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CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland
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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Finland
Flag of Finland
Map of Finland
Introduction Finland
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
Geography Finland
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 304,473 sq km
water: 33,672 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
total: 2,681 km
border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km
1,250 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m
Natural resources:
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use:
arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 93.44% (2005)
Irrigated land:
640 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
People Finland
5,231,372 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.1% (male 455,420/female 438,719)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,766,674/female 1,724,858)
65 years and over: 16.2% (male 337,257/female 508,444) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.3 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 42.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.14% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
10.45 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.86 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.5 years
male: 74.99 years
female: 82.17 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups:
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Sami 0.1%
Lutheran National Church 84.2%, Greek Orthodox in Finland 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5% (2003)
Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
Government Finland
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
Government type:
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 58 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
1 March 2000
Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003) and Deputy Prime Minister Eero HEINALUOMA (since 24 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment
election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HOLONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%
note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held March 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 24.7%, SDP 24.5%, Kok 18.5%, VAS 9.9%, VIHR 8%, KD 5.3%, SFP 4.6%; seats by party - Kesk 55, SDP 53, Kok 40, VAS 19, VIHR 14, KD 7, SFP 8, other 4
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green League or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Martti KORHONEN]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn WARE
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800
Flag description:
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Economy Finland
Economy - overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 12 countries joining the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. High unemployment remains a persistent problem.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$161.5 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$184.2 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$30,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 29.5%
services: 67.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
2.61 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 8%, industry 22%, construction 6%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, transport and communications 8%, public services 32%
Unemployment rate:
8.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.9 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
19.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
revenues: $99.61 billion
expenditures: $97.14 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
39.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
-2% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
79.61 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 39%
hydro: 18.7%
nuclear: 30.4%
other: 11.8% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
78.94 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
7 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
11.9 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
9,013 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
219,700 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
101,000 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
318,300 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
5.028 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
4.567 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
$5.043 billion (2005 est.)
$67.88 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)
Exports - partners:
Russia 11.2%, Sweden 10.7%, Germany 10.5%, UK 6.6%, US 6.2%, Netherlands 4.8% (2005)
$56.45 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners:
Germany 16.2%, Sweden 14.1%, Russia 13.9%, Netherlands 6.2%, Denmark 4.6%, UK 4.3%, China 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$11.4 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
$211.7 billion (30 June 2005)
Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $379 million (2001)
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Finland
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.368 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.988 million (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
7.7 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
3.2 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.fi; note - the IANA has assigned the ccTLD of .ax to the Aland Islands
Internet hosts:
1,503,976 (2005)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2002)
Internet users:
3.286 million (2005)
Transportation Finland
148 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 14 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 72
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 67 (2006)
gas 694 km (2004)
total: 5,741 km
broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2005)
total: 78,189 km
paved: 50,633 km (including 653 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,556 km (2006)
7,842 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 87 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,250,600 GRT/952,072 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 22, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 25
foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Russia 1, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 48 (Bahamas 8, Germany 2, Gibraltar 3, Luxembourg 4, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 13, Norway 4, Sweden 11, UK 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Hamina, Hanko, Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Pori, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma, Turku
Military Finland
Military branches:
Finnish Defense Forces: Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force (2003)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (October 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,121,275
females age 18-49: 1,076,684 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 913,617
females age 18-49: 875,689 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 32,040
females age 18-49: 30,519 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1.8 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2% (FY98/99)
Transnational Issues Finland
Disputes - international:
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

This page was last updated on 17 October, 2006