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CIA - The World Factbook -- Montenegro
 

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  Montenegro  
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 Introduction
 Geography
 People
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 Economy
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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 17 October, 2006


Map of Montenegro



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Montenegro Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries it was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocratic state ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and, at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. Following a three-year postponement, Montenegro held an independence referendum in the spring of 2006 under rules set by the EU. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded the 55% threshold, allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
   Geography    Montenegro Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 14,026 sq km
land: 13,812 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
   People    Montenegro Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
630,548 (2004)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (2004)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.6 births/1,000 population (2004)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2004)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma) 12%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Serbian (Ijekavian dialect - official)
   Government    Montenegro Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Montenegro
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: Republika Crna Gora
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Podgorica (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Cetinje (capital city)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Andrijevia, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pluzine, Pljevlja, Podgornica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro); note - a referendum on independence was held 21 May 2006
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 13 July
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
12 October 1992 (was approved by the Assembly)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 8 January 2003)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly (81 seats, elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats at the time of the elections)
elections: last held 10 September 2006 (next to be held 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Coalition for a European Montenegro 41, SNS 12, Coalition SPP/NS/DSS 11, PZP 11, Liberals and Bosniaks 3, Democratic League-Democratic Prosperity 1, Democratic Union of Albanians 1, Albanian Alternative 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Albanian Alternative; Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]; Coalition for a European Montenegro (DPS and SDP) [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Coalition SPP/NS/DSS; Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity [Mehmet BARHDI]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS; Democratic Union of Albanians [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberal Party of Montenegro [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Predrag BULATOVIC]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
UN, OSCE
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
   Economy    Montenegro Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the IMF, World Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization as well as negotiating a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in anticipation of eventual membership. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.412 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.125 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: % NA
industry: % NA
services: % NA
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
259,100 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.7% (2005)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
12.2% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2004)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
% of GDP NA
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: NA
expenditures: NA
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
% of GDP NA
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
steelmaking, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$171.3 million (2003)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3% (2003)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$601.7 million (2003)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8089 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Montenegro Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
177,663 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
543,220 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM wireless service, available through two providers with national coverage, is growing rapidly
international: country code - 382 (the old code of 381 used by Serbia and Montenegro will also remain in use until Feb 2007); two international switches connect the national system
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
31 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
13 (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.me
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 (2004)
   Transportation    Montenegro Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7,353 km
paved: 4,274 km
unpaved: 3,079 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 9,458 GRT/10,172 DWT
by type: cargo 4
registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Bar
   Military    Montenegro Top of Page
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
compulsory national military service abolished August 2006
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
Montenegrin plans call for the establishment of a fully professional armed forces
   Transnational Issues    Montenegro Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
ethnic Albanians in Kosovo refuse demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement, which includes a section of boundary with Montenegro

This page was last updated on 17 October, 2006


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