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CIA - The World Factbook -- Botswana
 

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  Botswana  
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 Geography
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This page was last updated on 17 October, 2006


Map of Botswana



Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Botswana Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
   Geography    Botswana Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.34% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
   People    Botswana Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,639,833
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 38.3% (male 319,531/female 309,074)
15-64 years: 57.9% (male 460,692/female 488,577)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 23,374/female 38,585) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.4 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 20 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.04% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.08 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.5 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 53.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 33.74 years
male: 33.9 years
female: 33.56 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.79 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.8%
male: 76.9%
female: 82.4% (2003 est.)
   Government    Botswana Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast, Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63 seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%, BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 312782
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
   Economy    Botswana Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $10,000 in 2005. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 23.8%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond mining production overshadows long-term prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$17.24 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$9.046 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 46.9% (including 36% mining)
services: 50.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
288,400 formal sector employees (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
30.3% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
63 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.766 billion
expenditures: $3.767 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
891 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.641 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.39 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16,000 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.584 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.68 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2004)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.37 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.309 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$519 million (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$73 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
pula (BWP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
pulas per US dollar - 5.1104 (2005), 4.6929 (2004), 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002), 5.8412 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Botswana Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
132,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
823,100 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast
international: country code - 267; two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,621 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Botswana Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
85 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 75
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 55
under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25,233 km
paved: 8,867 km
unpaved: 16,366 km (2003)
   Military    Botswana Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Botswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 350,649
females age 18-49: 361,642 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 136,322
females age 18-49: 136,315 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 21,103
females age 18-49: 21,379 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$325.5 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Botswana Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
commission established with Namibia has yet to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana has built electric fences to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans who flee to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has long supported and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing their short, but not clearly delimited Botswana-Zambia boundary

This page was last updated on 17 October, 2006


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