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Western Wall
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Western Wall

The Western Wall, known as the Kotel HaMa'aravi הכותל המערבי in Hebrew, also called the Wailing Wall (or Al-Buraq Wall, in a mix of English and Arabic) is a remaining outer court-yard wall of the Temple in Jerusalem, the holiest building in Judaism connected to the special sanctity of the Temple Mount on which the First and Second ancient Jewish Temples stood.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Muslim claims regarding the Wall
3 Recent damage to plaza
4 Other theories
5 External links

History

The First, or Solomon's Temple was built in the 10th century BCE. It was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE, the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE as a result of Great Jewish Revolt. Each Temple stood for a period of about 400 years.

According to legend, when legions of Titus destroyed the Temple, only a part of an outer court-yard 'western wall' remained standing. Legend has it that Titus left it as a bitter reminder to The Jews that Rome had vanquished Judea. The Jewish historian Josephus, an eyewitness to the events of the Jewish rebellion of 66-70 says Titus left the wall as part of a garrison for the Tenth Legion, left to keep watch over the area, and as a monument to the defenses the Roman army had overcome in taking the city. The Jews however attributed it to a promise made by God that he would leave some part of the holy Temple standing as a sign of his unbroken bond with the Jewish people in spite of the catastrophe which had befallen them. Jews have prayed there for two thousand years, believing that that spot has greater holiness than any other accessible place on Earth, or the fourth holiest overall, after the Holy of Holies, the rest of the Temple area, and the Courtyard, and that God is nearby listening to their prayers. There are some customs, such as leaving written prayers addressed to God in the cracks of the wall. Included in the thrice daily Jewish prayers are fervent pleas that God return to the Land of Israel, ingather all the Jewish exiles, rebuild the (Third) Temple, and bring the messianic era with the arrival of Moshiach, the Jewish messiah.

The Western Wall is holy to the Jewish people because this wall, is part of a wall that encompasses the Temple Mount along with the southern and eastern sections. This encompassing wall is the only remnant of the Temple in Jerusalem, the most holy site in Judaism. Of the three wall sections, eastern, southern and western, the western is the traditional site of prayer. See also Jerusalem, Jews and Judaism.

On the Temple Mount, encompassed by the wall, the Muslims over the centuries built the Dome of the Rock and the nearby Al-Aqsa Mosque, from which they believe that Mohammed ascended to heaven on a horse in a mysterious vision. For Muslims it is their third holiest spot on Earth, after Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia. In the past there was little contention over who "owns" the area and who should have custody over it, because outside powers ruled, such as Turkey for 400 years (1515-1917), followed by the British Mandate of Palestine (1917-1948), but in the 20th century this area has become a part of the larger Arab-Israeli conflict, particularly after the independence of the State of Israel.

According to most rabbis, Jews are forbidden to enter certain areas of the Temple Mount. These areas are defined differently by different rabbinic authorities, nonetheless all agree that the enterance into the area occupied by the Dome of the Rock is forbidden. That same area was once occupied by the Temple which was a biblically designated holy place. The rock beneath the Dome of The Rock, is considered by some rabbinic midrashic texts to be the foundation from which God created the universe. According to some rabbinic works, this rock was where the biblical patriarch Isaac was bound by Abraham during his near-sacrifice. This area was held to be where the patriarch Jacob slept and dreamt of a ladder going up to heaven with angels (Genesis). This spot is identified with the Holy Of Holies.

In ancient times only certain people were permitted into the Temple's grounds. The Temple complex was consisted of distinct areas each with its own level of holiness. The most holy area, the Holy Of Holies (Kodesh Hakodashim), the central part of the Temple was entered only once a year on Yom Kippur and only by the High Priest. Other areas were accessible only to members of the priestly family, the Kohanim. Other areas, further from the Holy of Holies were accessible to the Levi'im. Further out were areas accessible to all Jews.

By 1517 Islamic Ottoman Empire under Selim I took the land of what was once ancient Israel and Judea from the Egyptian Mamelukes (1250-1517). Turkey had a benevolent attitude towards the Jews, having welcomed thousands of Jewish refugees who had recently been expelled from Spain by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1492. The Turkish Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, was so taken with Jerusalem and its plight that he ordered that a magnificent surrounding fortress-wall built around the entire city (which was not that large at that time.) This wall still stands and can be seen by all today.

During that time the Western Wall always remained a site venerated by Jews; many trekked from across the world to spend their last years near the walls of Jerusalem, spending much of their time in tearful prayer in front of the Western Wall; non-Jewish observers watching the Jews cry there (mourning the destruction of the Temple) gave the site its popular, but incorrect name, the Wailing Wall.

soldiers at the Western Wall after taking part in British conquest of Jerusalem]]

When the United Kingdom took control of the land in 1917 under General Edmund Allenby, Jews were still allowed to stand by the wall and utter their prayers. However during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the area near the wall was taken over by Arab Legion of the army of Jordan. Jews were denied access to the wall, and building were constructed with a few meters of the wall. During the 1967 Six Day War, Israel brought the wall under complete Jewish control for the first time in 2,000 years.

The Israelis built a large plaza in front of the wall which is used by thousands of Jews on the Jewish holidays, and is a favorite tourist attraction year round. Many foreign heads of state who visit Israel, come to the Wall, out of their respect for its significance to Israel and to Jews world-wide. The Western Wall continues to have a powerful hold on the devotion of Jews all over the world. Over the decades, millions have come as tourists and pilgrims to be able to touch the Wall with their hands and feel the sanctity that emanates from it.

Muslim claims regarding the Wall

Recent damage to plaza

On
February 16, 2004, a portion of a stone retaining wall that forms one side of the Western Wall Plaza and supports the ramp that leads from the Western Wall plaza to the Gate of the Moors (Hebrew Sha'ar HaMughrabim, Arabic Bab al-Maghariba) and on the Temple Mount collapsed. [1]

Other theories

One theory postulates that the Western Wall is not a surviving wall of the temple, but is rather part of an old Roman fortress that dominated the city. This theory is promoted by "The Associated for Scriptural Knowledge" in their document: The Temple Mount and Fort Antonia

External links

See also: Temple Mount -- Judaism -- Israel -- Jerusalem