Encyclopedia  |   World Factbook  |   World Flags  |   Reference Tables  |   List of Lists     
   Academic Disciplines  |   Historical Timeline  |   Themed Timelines  |   Biographies  |   How-Tos     
Sponsor by The Tattoo Collection
Weapon
Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index

Weapon

A weapon is a tool to damage life or property, and as a result, also to threaten and defend. When weapons are used skillfully, they are used according to doctrines that maximize their desirable effects, while minimizing collateral damage.

Metaphorically, anything used to damage (even psychologically) can be referred to as a weapon. Weapons can be as simple as a club, or as advanced as a nuclear warhead.

For a comprehensive list of weapons and doctrines see military technology and equipment.

Weapon history is believed to begin in the stone age with flint knivess, handaxes and heads for lances. There is, however, no evidence for handaxes being through but very good evidence for them having been used to butcher animals. If hunted rather than scavenged (which is probably the most likely way hominds obtained meat), then wooden spears were likely used.

The earliest stone weapons are probably 'projectile points' (it is often difficult to ascertain whether a point was an arrowhead or spearhead, as they overlap in size and weight to a certain degree) made on flint (chert) dating to the Middle Palaeolithic (ca. 300,000 to 40,000 BC), found all over Europe and the Middle East. Incontrovertable direct evidence of levallois points (a type of tool made by Neanderthals) having been used to hunt comes from the recovery of animal bones with impact damage and embedded points in their skeletons. In the Upper Palaeolithic (ca. 40,000 to 10,000 BC) the use of spears and spear throwers were used.

When thrown from a spear-thrower, a lever to extend the arm, the lance bends, storing energy, and then straightens. It then strikes animals at effective ranges to over thirty meters. The range is definitely limited by aim, not power. Anthropologists constructing lances and throwers have thrown lances through several inches of oak. The broad, leaf-shaped heads penetrate deeply, and cut arteries well.

Some of the earliest evidence for arrows are from ca. 20,000 BC in the Levant (the so-called 'Geometric Kebaran' period), made with several very small sharp pieces of stone embedded in an arrowshaft.

Archery and swords have been crucial for warfare. Archery, because of its firepower, short swords because of their lethality in close combat. The most effective defense to these was a fortress. The doctrines to support fortresses in the age of edged weapons may have caused much of medieval and noble history. Of course, medieval siege weapons were used in countervailing doctrines.

During the 16th century to 19th century firearms became increasingly important and effective. During the U.S. Civil War various technologies including the machine gun and ironclad ship emerged that would be recognizable and useful weapons of war today, in lower-tech regions of the world. In the 19th century warships shifted also to use of fossil fuels and were no longer dependent on sail.

The age of edged weapons ended abruptly just before World War I with rifled artillery, such as howitzers which are able to destroy any masonry fortress. This single invention caused a revolution in military affairs and doctrines that continues to this day. See military technology during World War I for a detailed discussion.

An important feature of industrial age warfare was technological escalation - an innovation could, and would, be rapidly matched by copying it, and often with yet another innovation to counter it. The technological escalation during World War I was profound, and produced armed aircraft and the tank.

This continued in the interim period between that war and the next, with continuous improvements of all weapons by all major powers. Many modern weapons of war, particularly ground-based weapons, are mild improvements on those of World War II. See military technology during World War II for a detailed discussion.

The greatest development in weaponry since World War II has been the combination and further development of two weapons first used in it - nuclear weapons and the ballistic missile and its ultimate configuration the ICBM. The mutual possession of these by the United States and Russia ensured that either nation could inflict terrible damage on the other; so terrible, in fact, that neither nation was prepared to go to war with the other. The indiscriminate nature of the destruction has made nuclear-tipped missiles essentially useless for the smaller wars fought since. However computer-guided weaponry of all kinds, from smart bombs to computer-aimed tank rounds, has greatly increased weaponry's accuracy.

In modern warfare, since all redoubts are traps, maneuver and coordination of forces is decisive, overshadowing particular weapons. The goal of every modern commander is therefore to "operate within the observation-decision-action cycle of the enemy." In this way, the modern commander can bring overwhelming force to bear on isolated groups of the enemy, and tactically overwhelm an enemy. See military technology of the late 20th century.

Traditional military maneuvers tried to achieve this coordination with "fronts" made of lines of military assets. These were formerly the only way to prevent harm to friendly forces. Close-order marching and drill (a traditional military skill) was an early method to get relative superiority of coordination. Derivative methods (such as "leapfrogging units to advance a line") survived into combined arms warfare to coordinate aircraft, artillery, armor and infantry.

Computers are changing this. The most extreme example so far (2003) is the use of "swarm" tactics by the U.S. military in Iraq. The U.S. had instantaneous, reliably encrypted communications, perfect navigation using GPS and computer-mediated communications to aim precision weapons.

In swarm tactics, small units pass through possible enemy territory. When attacked, they try to survive, and call down immediate overwhelming showers of precision-guided air-dropped munitions for armor, and cluster bombs for enemy troops. To consolidate such a region, nearby artillery begin bombardment, and ground units rush in on safe vectors through the bombardments, avoiding them by computer-mediated navigation aids.

Thus in modern warfare, satellite navigation systems and especially computers create decisive advantages for ordinary military personnel with weapons that are serviceable, but otherwise unremarkable.

See also riot control agent, non-lethal, weapon of mass destruction. Netwar contains a discussion on using information technology as a weapon - more commonly called information warfare. See also persuasion technology and propaganda for discussions of the way information technology plays a role in the changing of the minds of subject populations - both branches of psychological warfare.

Time Periods

See also toy weapons, fictional technology, technological escalation, List of fictional weapons