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Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. The word comes from Latin vesper, meaning "evening."

The general structure of the Roman Catholic service of vespers is as follows:

The psalms and hymns of the Vespers service have attracted the interest of many composers, including Claudio Monteverdi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Anton Bruckner, and Sergei Rachmaninoff.

See also: Mass (music); requiem; sacred music; Book of Hours

From the traditional Christian Vespers, the term has come to be used more broadly for various evening services. In the Unitarian Universalist church, there is often a vespers service which involves singing by the congregation but also includes a period of silence for meditation and contemplation.

Some regular community vespers services are completely areligious (or at least are not sponsored by any church) and serve simply as a time for quiet contemplation in the evening hours.

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