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Valence bond theory
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Valence bond theory

The valence-bond approach considers the overlap of the atomic orbitals (AO) of the participation atoms to form a chemical bond. Due to the overlapping, electrons are localized in the bond region.

The overlapping AOs can be of different types, for example, a sigma bond may be formed by the overlapping the following AOs.

However, the atomic orbitals for bonding may not be "pure" atomic orbitals directly from the solution of the Schrödinger equation. Often, the bonding atomic orbitals have a character of several possible types of orbitals. The methods to get an AO with the proper character for the bonding is called hybridization. The resulting atomic orbitals are called hybridized atomic orbitals or simply hybrid orbitals.