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A V10 is an engine in V configuration, having 10 cylinders.

The V10 configuration is inherently imbalanced in the vertical plane and generates a rocking couple causing vibration from end to end of the engine. To contain this issue a balance shaft is required. The complexity of designing this made the V10 difficult to engineer without CAD, and therefore the V10 was never used before the 1980s.

V10s have rarely been a popular configuration for road cars: a V12 is only slightly more complicated and runs more smoothly. However, recent years have seen increasing use of the configuration in the United States. The Dodge Viper uses a V10 engine, which has since been made available in the Dodge Ram SRT-10 sport pickup. V10s are also available on Ford F-250 and Ford F-350 trucks and the Ford Excursion large SUV. BMW is going to introduce a V10 in the 2005 model year BMW M5, launching in the later half of 2004. The Lamborghini Gallardo also has a V10 engine.

The only other use of the V10 has been in Formula 1 racing, after the introduction of the 3 litre rule made the V10 seem the best compromise between the V8 and the V12. Renault had a more flat 110˚ motor for a couple of years (2002 and 2003).