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Timeline of Christianity
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Timeline of Christianity

Timeline of Christianity (1AD-Present)

The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from 1AD to the present. (Question marks on dates and information indicate approximate dates)

Table of contents
1 Life of Jesus
2 Early Christanity
3 Gospels Written
4 Early Church
5 End of the Roman Empire
6 Post-Roman Empire
7 Middle Ages
8 Late Middle Ages
9 Modern Era
10 Sources

Life of Jesus

Early Christanity

The period from around
36 to about 65 is the period of oral tradition in Christianity. Between the time of Jesus and the time the first gospel (Mark) is written, original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria (Acts 8,1ff), Peter leads the new Christian Church, moves the Church headquarters to Rome
36?-67 Peter leads at least one part of the new Christian Church, moves the church headquarters from Jerusalem to Rome
  • 36?-37 Paul of Tarsus has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem church destroyed
  • 37 Paul of Tarsus is converted (Acts 9)
  • 37-41 Gaius Caligula is emperor of Rome, declared himself god
  • 37-41? Marullus is Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
  • 40 Paul goes to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Gal 1, 18-20)
  • 41-54 Claudius emperor of Rome
  • 44 James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12, 1-3)
  • 47-48 Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13, 4-12)
  • 48-49 Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, doctrine regarding circumcision and dietary law is agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia" (Acts 15)
  • 48-57? Paul writes Galations
  • 49-50 Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
  • 50? Peshitta translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400)
  • 50? Ascension of Isaiah, original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
  • 51-52 Paul writes 1 Thes
  • 51-52 Paul writes 2 Thes
  • 53-62 Paul writes Phil
  • 54-68 Nero is emperor of Rome
  • 56 Paul writes 1 Corinthians
  • 57 Paul writes Romans
  • 57 Paul writes 2 Corinthians
  • 57 Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21]
  • 58 Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4]
  • 60 Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts 28,16)
  • 61-63? Paul? writes Ephesians
  • 61-63 Paul writes Philemon
  • 61-63 Paul writes Colossians
  • 61-63? Paul? writes 1,2 Timothy, Titus, known as "pastoral epistles"
  • 62? James written by leader of Jerusalem community? (Gal 2,9?), "catholic" epistle
  • 62 Paul martyred for treason in Rome
  • 62 {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.} [JA20.9.1,Marginal Jew,p.57]
  • 64 Great fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians, {Therefore to squelch the rumor , Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated.} [Tacitus Annals 15.44;Marginal Jew;Meier;p.89-90]
  • 64-95? 1 Peter written in Rome, perhpas by Peter the apostle, "catholic" epistle

  • Gospels Written

    *65-160 is the period in which the four gospels, Acts, Revelations, and remaining epistles are written  - Peter is martyred before 1st Gospel is written, ther are seven Popes before last epistle is completed 
    
    
    65? Q written, (German:Quelle, meaning "source") a hypothetical Greek text used in writing of Matthew and Luke
  • 65-150 Didache: Instructions of the Apostles written
  • 65-150 Dialogue of the Savior, Gospel of Peter
  • 65-150 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914
  • 65-150 Gospel of Thomas written, perhaps based on Q, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5
  • 65-175 Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908
  • 65-175 Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (~175)
  • 65-250 Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887
  • 65-350 "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]
  • 66-70 Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple)
  • 67 Peter martyred, crucified upside down in Rome
  • 67-78 Pope Linus, 2nd Pope, succeeds Peter (Linus mentioned in 2 Tm 4,21)
  • 67 General Vespasian of Rome conquers Galilee
  • 68 Nero commits suicide, resurrects as "Nero redivivus", Rev's 666? (see 81)
  • 68 Galba emperor of Rome (6/68-1/69)
  • 68 Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome, site of Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1949
  • 69 Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
  • 69 Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
  • 69 Flavian Dynasty of Rome (Vespian, Titus, Domitian)
  • 69-79 Vespian emperor of Rome, quells unrest in Rome and Jerusalem
  • 70 Collapse of Jewish self-government in Judea and destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
  • 70 Gospel according to Mark written in Rome, by Peter's interpreter? (1 Peter 5,13), original ending apparently lost, endings added c 400
  • 70? "Signs Gospel" written, hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is the Messiah
  • 70-640 Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism, rise of house of Hillel
  • 75-90 Gospel according to Luke written, based on Mark and Q
  • 75-90 Acts of the Apostles written, same author as Gospel according to Luke
  • 79-81 Titus emperor of Rome, eldest son of Vespasian
  • 79-91 Pope Anacletus, 3rd Pope, known as "blameless" (as in Titus 1,7?)
  • 79 Mt Vesuvius, volcano overlooking Naples Bay, erupts, engulfs Pompeii
  • 80-85 Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in early Church
  • 81-96 Domitian emperor of Rome, son of Vespasian, "Nero redivivus?" (see 68)
  • 81-96 Revelations written, by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
  • 90-100 1 John written, by author(s) of 4th gospel, "catholic" epistle
  • 90-100 2,3 John written, by "elder", disciple of John (son of Zebedee)?, "catholic" epistle
  • 90-100 Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, only eyewitness to Jesus?, disciple Jesus loved?, Gnostic?
  • 90? Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish (OT) books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns
  • 91-101 Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Phil 4,3), wrote letter to Corinth in 95 called "1 Clement"
  • 94 "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61]
  • 96? Hebrews written, by ?
  • 96-98 Nerva emperor of Rome
  • 98-116 Trajan emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size
  • 100? Odes of Solomon, written in Greek or Syriac, ref by John? (Apocrypha)
  • 100? Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
  • 100? 2 Clement, an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
  • 100? 2 Esdras (Vg:4 Esdras), Hebrew?, claims 24 OT books (Vulgate & Peshitta)
  • 100? Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch:Syriac, 3 Baruch:Greek) (Peshitta)
  • 100? Paralipomena of Jeremiah (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible)
  • 100? Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Aramaic and Hebrew fragments found at Qumran Caves 1,4 (Armenian Bible)
  • 100? Jude written, probably by doubting relative of Jesus (Mark 6,3), rejected by some early Christians due to its reference to apocryphal Book of Enoch (v14), "catholic" epistle
  • 100-125? 2 Peter written, by ?, not accepted into canon until early 400s, drew upon Epistle of Jude, "catholic" epistle
  • 100-150 Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)
  • 101-109 Pope Evaristus, 5th Pope
  • 109-116 Pope Alexander, 6th Pope
  • 110? Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, written by Polycarp (160) (AF)
  • 110? "Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, his letters were subjected to heavy Christian forgery esp. 4th cent. (Apostolic Fathers)
  • 116-125 Pope Sixtus I, 7th Pope
  • 117-138 Hadrian emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain

  • Early Church

    125-350 Period of Christianity during which the first Bible was assembled - Christians are fiercely persecuted and then finally tolerated by the Roman Empire, Great Plague in Rome
    125-136
    Pope Telesphorus, 8th Pope, martyred
  • 125? Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn18:31-33,37-38
  • 125? Shepherd of Hermas, written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers)
  • 130-200 "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (165), Athenagoras (180?), Aristides (145?), Theophilus of Antioch (185?), Tatian (170), Quadratus (130?), Melito of Sardis (180?), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (180?), also Epistle to Diognetus in Apostolic Fathers
  • 130? "Gospel of Basilides", a 24 book commentary?, lost
  • 130? Papias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF)
  • 130? Aquila of Pontus, Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)
  • 132-135 Bar Kokhba Revolt: final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine (coined by Herodotus)
  • 138-161 Antoninus Pius emperor of Rome
  • 138-142 Pope Hyginus, 9th Pope
  • 140 Letters of Marcion, produces his own canon without OT and using only a heavily edited Luke + 10 Pauline Epistles, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
  • 140? Apocalypse of Peter, written in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
  • 142-155 Pope Pius I, 10th Pope
  • 150? Gospel of the Egyptians, Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi)
  • 150? "Western Revisor" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 and Codex Bezae (D)
  • 150? Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12
  • 155-166 Pope Anicetus, 11th Pope
  • 160? Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, martyred at age 86: "Let. to Philip." (110)
  • 160? Martyrdom of Polycarp, in Greek (Apostolic Fathers, ISBN:0-8010-5676-4)
  • 161-180 Marcus Aurelius emperor of Rome
  • 164-180 Great Plague in Roman Empire
  • 166-174 Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved Easter from Nisan 14 to following Sunday
  • 170 Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, cites "Western" Gospel text-type
  • 170 Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor
  • 170 Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels
  • 170 Tatian produces "Diatessaron" (Harmony) by blending 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1
  • 170? Symmachus, an Ebionite, writes an entirely new Greek OT translation
  • 174-189 Pope Eleutherius, 13th Pope
  • 175? Acts of Paul (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]
  • 180-192 Commodus emperor of Rome
  • 185-350 Canon Muratorian, 1st extant for NT?, written in Rome by Hippolytus?, excludes Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John; includes Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter
  • 189-198 Pope Victor I, 1st Latin Pope, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166, 190)
  • 190 Christian council to determine "official" date of Easter
  • 193-211 Septimius Severus emperor of Rome
  • 197 Writings of Apollonius, uses the term "catholic" in reference to 1 John
  • 198-217 Pope Zephyrinus, 15th Pope
  • 200 Bishop of Antioch notes Gospel of Peter (see 65?) being used in Cilicia
  • 200? Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types: Jn 1:1-6:11,35-7:52;8:12-14:26,29-30;15:2-26;16:2-4,6-7,10-20:20,22-23,25-21:9
  • 200? Papyrus 75: Bodmer 14-15, Luke & John, earliest extant Luke, ~Vaticanus; Lk3:18-22,33-4:2,34-5:10,37-6:4,10-7:32,35-39,41-43,46-9:2,4-17:15,19-18:18; 22:4-24:53; Jn1:1-7:52;8:12-11:45,48-57;12:3-13:1,8-9;14:8-30;15:7-8
  • 200? Papyrus 46: 2nd Chester Beatty, "Alexandrian" text-type
  • 200? Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15;2:3-8
  • 200? Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt3:9,15;5:20-22,25-28;26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31- 33
  • 200? Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type
  • 200? Latin Bible translations begun in Carthage?, originals no longer extant
  • 200? Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexendria
  • 212-217 Geta then Caracalla emperors of Rome
  • 217-236 Anti-Pope Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect, 1st Anti-Pope (illegitimate claimants of or pretenders to the papal throne)
  • 217-222 Pope Callistus I, 16th Pope
  • 218-222 Heliogabalus emperor of Rome
  • 220 Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans
  • 220? Clement of Alexandria, b.150?, bishop, cites "Alexandrian" NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians; wrote: "Exhortations to the Greeks";"Rich Man's Salutation";"To the Newly Baptized"; (Loeb Classics)
  • 222-230 Pope Urban I, 17th Pope
  • 222-235 Alexandar Severus emperor of Rome
  • 223? Tertullian, wr: "de Spectaculis" (Latin): v30.6 cites rumor Jesus son of prostitute, coined "New Testament", cites "Western" Gospel text-type (Loeb)
  • 225? Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian)
  • 225? Papyrus 967: Chester Beatty 9, Greek Ezekiel 11:25-end, ~Codex Vaticanus
  • 230-236 Pope Pontian, 18th Pope
  • 230-250 Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen who in 248 cited a rumor recorded by Celsus that "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223]
  • 236-238 Maximus emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deporting Pope Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die
  • 236-237 Pope Anterus, 19th Pope
  • 237-250 Pope Fabian, 20th Pope
  • 238-244 Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III emperors of Rome
  • 240-250 Christian council of Carthage
  • 244-249 Philip the Arabian emperor of Rome
  • 249-251 Decius emperor of Rome
  • 249 Rome celebrates 1000th anniversary
  • 250 Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints
  • 250 Letters of Methodius, Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius; church fathers
  • 250? Mandeans (followers of John the Baptist) begin compilation of "Ginza"
  • 250? Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas; Ps33,34; 1Pt1:1-5:14; 2Pt1:1-3:18;
  • 250? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #5:R962: Gn8:13-9:2,24:13-46:33,Enoch91-105; #7: I8:18-19:13,38:14-45:5,54:1=60:22; #8: Jr4:30-5:24; #10: Dn1- 12:13(+Add),Bel4-39,Sus5-end,Esther1:1a-8:6(+Add)
  • 251-253 Gallus emperor of Rome
  • 251-253 Pope Cornelius, 21st Pope
  • 251-258 Anti-Pope Novatian, decreed no forgiveness for sins after baptism
  • 253-260 Valerian emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons
  • 253-254 Pope Lucius I, 22nd Pope
  • 254 Letters of Origen, Jesus and God one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of LXX side by side: Hebrew, Hebrew transliterated in Greek, Aquila's Greek trans., Symmachus' Greek trans., Origen's revised LXX Greek trans., Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima trans., Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cites "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; Eusebius claimed Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 [EH6.8.1-3]
  • 254-257 Pope Steven I, 23rd Pope, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates
  • 257-258 Pope Sixtus II, 24th Pope, martyred
  • 257 Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain
  • 258 Letters of Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, cites "Western" NT text-type, claims Christians are freely forging his letters to discredit him
  • 260-268 Gallienus emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman Church
  • 260-268 Pope Dionysius, 25th Pope, rebuilds Roman Church after Valerian's massacre
  • 264-268 Christian council on Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism)
  • 264? Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, b.190?
  • 268 Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth
  • 268-270 Claudius II emperor of Rome
  • 269-274 Pope Felix I, 26th Pope
  • 270-275 Aurelian emperor of Rome
  • 275-283 Pope Eutychian, 27th Pope, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass
  • 275? Papyrus 47: 3rd Chester Beatty, ~Sinaiticus, Rv9:10-11:3,5-16:15,17-17:2
  • 276-282 Marcus Aurelius Probus emperor of Rome
  • 276 Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia
  • 283-296 Pope Gaius, 28th Pope
  • 284-305 Diocletian emperor of Rome, notorius persecuter of Christians
  • 285 Roman empire partitioned into Western and Eastern empires
  • 290-345 St Pachomius establishes 1st monastery in Egypt
  • 296-304 Pope Marcellinus, 29th Pope, apostate, offered pagan sacrifices for Diocletian
  • 300? Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
  • 300? Hesychius of Alex., martyr, translates Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]
  • 300? Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
  • 300? other 3rd century NT witnesses
  • 303-311 Last persecution of Christians in Rome
  • 304 Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau
  • 306-337 Emperor Constantine the Great, convert to Christianity
  • 306-312 Maxentius emperor of Western Roman Empire
  • 306-308 Pope Marcellus I, 30th Pope, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace
  • 310 Pope Eusebius, 31st Pope, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by Maxentius
  • 311-314 Pope Miltiades, 32nd Pope, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence
  • 312 Lucian, founded Exegetical School of Antioch, martyred
  • 312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire
  • 313 Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity
  • 313 Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates
  • 314-335 Pope Silvester I, 33rd Pope
  • 314 Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism
  • 317 Letters of Lactantius, early Christian church father
  • 321 Constantine decrees Sunday as offical Roman-Christian day of rest
  • 325 Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called 1st great Christian council by Jerome, 1st ecumenical, 318 bishops attend, Nicaean Creed
  • 325? Fayyumic Coptic cop(mf) translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11
  • 330 Old Saint Peter's Basilica dedicated by Constantine, located over the traditional burial site of Saint Peter the Apostle in Rome on Vatican Hill
  • 331 Seat of Roman Empire moved to Constantinople (formally Byzantium)
  • 336-337 Pope Mark, 34th Pope
  • 336 Arius, Greek theologian - Arianism (Jesus was a created being)
  • 337-350 Roman empire splits again, Constans emperor of West until 350
  • 337-361 Roman empire splits again, Constantius emperor of East until 361
  • 337-352 Pope Julius I, 35th Pope
  • 338 Jewish calendar modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar
  • 340? Eusebius of Caesarea (260-340), theologian & church historian, cites "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); Loeb Classics: 2 volumes {Papias, bishop of Hierapolis (130?), claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could."} [Ref: EH3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127] Eusebius' NT Canon: Recognized Books: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 14 Pauline Epistles, 1Jn, 1Pt; Disputed Books: Rev, James, Jude, 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache, Gospel of the Hebrews; Rejected Books: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ... [EH3.25], used the term "catholic" to refer to all seven epistles - James; 1,2,3 John; 1,2 Peter; Jude
  • 350-400 Period of time between the 1st Christian Bible and the 1st Western Christian Bible, during which the books contained in Bibles varied
  • 350 Letters of Adamantius, Firmicus Maternus; early Christian church fathers
  • 350? Codex Sinaiticus (S or ): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2- 3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text- type
  • 350? Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - 1-4Maccabees -Psalms of Solomon - Ps151 + 27NT), missing Gn1-46:28, Ps105:27-137:6, 1Tm- Phm, Heb9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
  • 350? Papyrus Antinoopolis of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
  • 350? Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6- 104:13,106:1-107:3
  • 350? Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX)
  • 350? Canon Cheltenham: 24NT books (excludes James, Jude, Hebrews)
  • 350? Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John
  • 350? Ulfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translates Greek NT to Gothic
  • 352-366 Pope Liberius, 36th Pope
  • 354-430 St. Augustine, Latin Bishop considered the founder of formalized Christian theology, church father
  • 355-365 Anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II
  • 360 Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex)
  • 361-363 Julian the Apostate emperor of East, attempts to revive Paganism
  • 363 Council of Laodicea names 26 NT books (excludes Revelations)
  • 363 Letters of Marius Victorinus, Acacius of Caesarea; early church fathers
  • 364 Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep 7th day Sabbath
  • 366-384 Pope Damasus I, 37th Pope, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians)
  • 366-367 Anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius
  • 367 Athanasias, bishop of Alexandria, first citing of modern 27 NT canon
  • 367 Letters of Hilary of Poitiers, Lucifer of Calaris; early church fathers
  • 367 Athanasius, d.373, bishop of Alexandria, first cite of modern 27NT canon
  • 370 Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27NT + Wisdom of Solomon
  • 370 Doctrine of Addai at Edessa proclaims 17 book NT canon using Diatessaron (instead of the 4 Gospels) + Acts + 15 Pauline Epistles (inc. 3 Corinthians)
  • 373 Letters of Ephraem Syrus, cites "Western" Acts text-type
  • 378 Letters of Titus of Bostra, Ambrosiaster, Priscillian; church fathers
  • 379-395 Theodosius the Great, last emperor of the united empire
  • 380 Feb 27, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius
  • 381 Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, Jesus had true human soul
  • 382-384 Pope Damasus I has Jerome revise and unify Latin Bibles
  • 383 Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain
  • 384 Jerome presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin Gospels, originals lost
  • 384-399 Pope Siricius, 38th Pope, criticized Jerome
  • 390 Apollinaris of Laodicea, Jesus had human body but divine spirit
  • 390 Letters of Tyconius, Gregory of Nyssa, Didymus of Alex.; church fathers
  • 391? Ammianus Marcellinus, b.330, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"
  • 393,397 Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 NT books (see 354)
  • 395 Theodosius prohibits practice of Pagan rituals including Olympic Games
  • 395 Ausonius, b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; Loeb Classics 2v (Latin)
  • 396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens
  • 397 Ambrose, b.333?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide" ...
  • 399-401 Pope Anastasius I, 39th Pope

  • End of the Roman Empire

    400-484 Era between 1st Western Christian Bible and the Great Schism - Christian doctrine is formed, Roman empire ends
    400? Vulgate Bible, by Jerome?, (340?-420) originals lost, Vulgate Latin text becomes standard Western Christian Bible
  • 400? Jerome cites "expanded" ending in Mark after Mark 16,14
  • 400? Jerome adds Pericope of the Adultress (John 7,53-8,11)
  • 400? Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type
  • 400? Peshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2Pt, 2-3Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible
  • 400? Codex Bobiensis it(k): ~half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text- type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk16:8
  • 401 Visigoths invade Italy
  • 403 Letters of Epiphanius of Constantia, John Chrysostom; church fathers
  • 410 Visigoths sack Rome under king Alaric
  • 414 Letters of Nicetas of Remesiana, Orosius; early Christian church fathers
  • 415 Bishop Cyril of Alex. (444) expels Jews, kills Hypatia with oyster shells
  • 416 Visigoths take Spain
  • 417-418 Pope Zosimus, 41st Pope
  • 418-422 Pope Boniface I, 42nd Pope
  • 418-419 Anti-Pope Eulalius
  • 418 Franks take Gaul
  • 420 St. Jerome, (S.E. Hieronymus), b.340?, Latin scholar; (Loeb Classics)
  • 422-432 Pope Celestine I, 43rd Pope
  • 423 Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, notes Tatian's Harmony (170) in heavy use
  • 431 Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, decreed Mary the Mother of God
  • 429 Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes
  • 430 St. Augustine, b.354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher, wrote: "The City of God", "Confessions"; Loeb Classics 10 v. (Latin)
  • 430 Letters of Marcus Eremita, Nilus of Ancyra; Christian church fathers
  • 431 Syrian Christianity splits into East (Nestorian-disagreed with Council of Ephesus) and West (Jacobites)
  • 432 St Patrick begins mission in Ireland
  • 432-440 Pope Sixtus III, 44th Pope
  • 433-453 Attila the Hun, "Scourge of the Gods"
  • 440-461 Pope Leo I, 45th Pope
  • 444 Letters of Cyril of Alexandria, Arnobius the Younger; church fathers
  • 450 Mark's Resurrection of Jesus added to Bible (Mark 16, 9-20)
  • 450? Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX - 1-2Maccabees + 14_Church_Odes + 27NT + 1-2Clement), missing 1K12:17-14:9, Ps49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt1-25:6, Jn6:50-8:52, 2Cr4:13-12:6, 1Clement57.7-63.4, 2Clement12.5b-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type
  • 450? Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"

    Post-Roman Empire

    484-640 '\Period between Great Schism and the destruction of the Library of Alexendria ' - After the end of the Roman Empire, the Catholic Church sees a period of turmoil and division, Europe's population "halved" by plague, great earthquakes occur
    484-519 Acacian schism, over "Henoticon" divides Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) churches. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek church and held to the Acacian heresy, which denied the divine paternity of Christ. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian heresy.
  • 484 Letters of Vigilius of Thapsus, early Christian church father
  • 489 Zeno destroys Nestorian (451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St Simeon
  • 491 Armenian Church seceds from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches
  • 491-518 Anastasius I eastern Roman emperor
  • 492-496 Pope Gelasius I, 50th Pope, "Vicar of Christ" is first used as another title
  • 496-498 Pope Anastasius II
  • 498 Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia
  • 498-514 Pope Symmachus
  • 514-523 Pope Hormisdas
  • 523-526 Pope John I, martyr
  • 498-506 Anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrencian schism
  • 500 Incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican
  • 500? Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels
  • 500? Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels
  • 500? Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis
  • 502 Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498)
  • 518-527 Justin I: emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire
  • 524 Boethius, b.480?, Roman Christian philosopher, wrote: "Theological Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics) (Latin)
  • 525 Dionysius Exiguus sets Christian calendar (a.d.) & Jesus' birth @ 23 Dec 1AD
  • 526 Earthquake in Antioch kills 250,000
  • 526-530 Pope Felix IV (III)
  • 527-565 Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor
  • 527 Letters of Fulgentius, early Christian church father
  • 529 Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic
  • 530-532 Pope Boniface II
  • 530 Anti-Pope Dioscorus
  • 532-535 Pope John II
  • 533 N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province
  • 534-870 Malta becomes Byzantine province
  • 535-536 Pope Agapitus I
  • 536-537 Pope Silverius, martyr
  • 537-555 Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
  • 539-562 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
  • 542 Plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe
  • 543 Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world
  • 541-546 Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27NT + Epistle to Laodiceans
  • 544 Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451)
  • 547 Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures"
  • 547 Plague reaches Britain
  • 548 Letters of Apringius Pacensis, early Christian church father
  • 550-1453 Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes standard Greek
  • 550 Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing & conflation
  • 550 St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon
  • 550? Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Epistles + Canon of ~250AD
  • 550? Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels
  • 550? Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms
  • 555 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian
  • 556-561 Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547)
  • 561-574 Pope John III, authorized by Justinian
  • 565-578 Justin II, Byzantine emperor
  • 567 Letters of Primasius, Cassiodorus; early Christian church fathers
  • 572-628 War between Byzantine empire and Persia
  • 575-579 Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II,
  • 578-582 Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor
  • 579-590 Pope Pelagius II, died of plague
  • 582-602 Maurice, Byzantine emperor
  • 587 Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity
  • 589 Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity
  • 590 Plague in Rome
  • 590-604 Pope Gregory I, commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (now known as Gregorian Chant)
  • 594 End of plague which began in 542 and "halved" the population of Europe!
  • 596 St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity
  • 600? Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels
  • 600? Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27NT, "Western" text-type
  • 602-610 Phocas, Byzantine emperor after killing Maurice
  • 604-606 Pope Sabinian, authorized by Phocas
  • 606-607 Pope Boniface III, authorized by Phocas
  • 607-615 Pope Boniface IV, authorized by Phocas
  • 609 Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
  • 610-641 Heraclius, Byzantine emperor after killing Phocas
  • 611 Mohammed's reported vision of Allahon Mount Hira
  • 614 Persians take Damascas and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ"
  • 615 earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings
  • 615-618 Pope Deusdedit
  • 619-625 Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius
  • 622-680 Monothelite controversy: condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Constantinople
  • 622 first year in Muslim calendar, The Hegira, 1a.h., (a.h. = anno hegirae)
  • 624 Mohammed marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bakr
  • 625 Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity
  • 625-638 Pope Honorius I
  • 625 Mohammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe
  • 626 King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization
  • 627 Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh
  • 628 Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians
  • 628 Mohammed captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam
  • 629 Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians
  • 629 Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622)
  • 632 Mohammed, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam
  • 632 East Anglia Christianized
  • 632 Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina
  • 634 Omar I, 2d Caliph, takes Syria/Persia/Egypt;defeats Heraclius in Holy War
  • 635 Christianization of Wessex
  • 635-750 Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs
  • 636 Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism
  • 637 Jerusalem captured by Islam
  • 638 Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites"
  • 640 Pope Severinus
  • 640 Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely distroyed.

  • Middle Ages

    640-1380 Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and the first complete English translation of the Bible
    640-642 Pope
    John IV
  • 642-649 Pope Theodore I
  • 649-654 Pope Martin I, martyr
  • 654-657 Pope Eugene I
  • 657-673 Pope Vitalian
  • 673-676 Pope Adeodatus II
  • 676-678 Pope Donus
  • 678-682 Pope Agatho
  • 682-684 Pope Leo II
  • 684-685 Pope Benedict II
  • 685-686 Pope John V
  • 686-687 Pope Conon
  • 687 Anti-Pope Theodore
  • 687 Anti-Pope Paschal
  • 687-701 Pope Sergius I
  • 690? Earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, continued work by Bede and others from this point forward
  • 701-705 Pope John VI
  • 705-708 Pope John VII
  • 708 Pope Sisinnius
  • 708-715 Pope Constantine
  • 715-731 Pope Gregory II
  • 731-741 Pope Gregory III
  • 741-752 Pope Zachary
  • 750? Tower added to St Peter's Basilica at the front of the atrium
  • 752-757 Pope Stephen II (III)
  • 757-768 Pope Paul I
  • 767 Anti-Pope Constantine
  • 768 Anti-Pope Philip
  • 768-772 Pope Stephen III (IV)
  • 772-795 Pope Adrian I
  • 795-816 Pope Leo III
  • 816-817 Pope Stephen IV (V)
  • 817-824 Pope Paschal I
  • 824-827 Pope Eugene II
  • 827 Pope Valentine
  • 827-844 Pope Gregory IV
  • 844 Anti-Pope John
  • 844-847 Pope Sergius II
  • 847-855 Pope Leo IV
  • 850? King Alfred translation of several Bible books into English vernacular, also done by Aldhelm and Aelfric
  • 855-858 Pope Benedict III
  • 855 Anti-Pope Anastasius
  • 856 Earthquake in Corinth kills 45,000
  • 858-867 Pope Nicholas I
  • 867-872 Pope Adrian II
  • 872-882 Pope John VII
  • 882-884 Pope Marinus I
  • 884-885 Pope Adrian III
  • 885-891 Pope Stephen V (VI)
  • 891-896 Pope Formosus
  • 896 Pope Boniface VI
  • 896-897 Pope Stephen VI (VII)
  • 897 Pope Romanus
  • 897-898 Pope Theodore II
  • 898-900 Pope John IX
  • 900-903 Pope Benedict IV
  • 903-904 Pope Leo V
  • 903 Anti-Pope Christopher
  • 904-911 Pope Sergius III
  • 911-913 Pope Anastasius III
  • 913-914 Pope Landus
  • 914-928 Pope John X
  • 928 Pope Leo VI
  • 928-931 Pope Stephen VII (VIII)
  • 931-936 Pope John XI
  • 936-939 Pope Leo VII
  • 939-942 Pope Stephen VIII (IX)
  • 942-946 Pope Marinus II
  • 946-955 Pope Agapitus II
  • 955-963 Pope John XII
  • 963-964 Pope Leo VIII
  • 964-965 Pope Benedict V
  • 965-973 Pope John XIII
  • 973-974 Pope Benedict VI
  • 974 Anti-Pope Boniface VII
  • 974-983 Pope Benedict VII
  • 983-985 Pope John XIV
  • 985-996 Pope John XV
  • 996-999 Pope Gregory V
  • 997 Anti-Pope John XVI
  • 999-1003 Pope Sylvester II
  • 1003-1004 Pope John XVII
  • 1004-1009 Pope John XVIII
  • 1009-1012 Pope Sergius IV
  • 1012-1024 Pope Benedict VIII
  • 1012 Anti-Pope Gregory
  • 1024-1032 Pope John XIX
  • 1032-1045 Pope Benedict IX
  • 1045 Pope Sylvester III
  • 1045 Pope Benedict IX
  • 1045-1046 Pope Gregory VI
  • 1046-1047 Pope Clement II
  • 1047-1048 Pope Benedict IX
  • 1048-1049 Pope Damasus II
  • 1049-1055 Pope Leo IX
  • 1054 Split between Eastern and Western churches formalized, Orthodox Church founded
  • 1055-1057 Pope Victor II
  • 1057-1059 Pope Stephen IX (X)
  • 1057 Earthquake in Cilicia (Asia Minor) kills 60,000
  • 1058 Anti-Pope Benedict X
  • 1059-1061 Pope Nicholas II
  • 1061-1073 Pope Alexender II
  • 1061 Anti-Pope Honorius II
  • 1073-1086 Gregory VII
  • 1080 Anti-Pope Clement III
  • 1086-1088 Pope Victor III
  • 1088-1099 Pope Urban II
  • 1095-1291 10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks
  • 1099-1118 Pope Paschal II
  • 1100 Anti-Pope Theodoric
  • 1102 Anti-Pope Albert
  • 1105 Anti-Pope Sylvester IV
  • 1118-1119 Pope Gelasius II
  • 1118 Anti-Pope Gregory VIII
  • 1119-1124 Pope Callistus II
  • 1124-1130 Pope Honorius II
  • 1124 Anti-Pope Celestine II
  • 1130-1143 Pope Innocent II
  • 1130 Anti-Pope Anacletus II
  • 1138 Anti-Pope Victor IV
  • 1143-1144 Pope Celestine II
  • 1144-1145 Pope Lucius II
  • 1145-1153 Pope Eugene III
  • 1153-1154 Pope Anastasius IV
  • 1154-1159 Pope Adrian IV
  • 1159-1181 Pope Alexander III
  • 1159 Anti-Pope Victor IV
  • 1164 Anti-Pope Paschal III
  • 1168 Anti-Pope Callistus III
  • 1179 Anti-Pope Innocent III
  • 1181-1185 Pope Lucius III
  • 1185-1187 Pope Urban III
  • 1187 Pope Gregory VIII
  • 1187-1191 Pope Clement III
  • 1191 Pope Celestine III
  • 1198-1216 Pope Innocent III
  • 1206 Rosary is reportedly given to St. Dominic by an apparition of Mary
  • 1215 Dominican order begun
  • 1216-1227 Pope Honorius III
  • 1223 Franciscan order begun
  • 1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher
  • 1227-1241 Pope Gregory IX
  • 1241-1243 Pope Celestine IV
  • 1243-1254 Pope Innocent IV
  • 1254-1261 Pope Alexander IV
  • 1260 Date which a 1988 Vatican sponsered scientific study places the origin of the Shroud of Turin
  • 1261-1265 Pope Urban IV
  • 1265-1271 Pope Clement IV
  • 1271-1276 Pope Gregory X
  • 1276 Pope Innocent V
  • 1276 Pope Adrian V
  • 1276-1277 Pope John XXI
  • 1277-1294 Pope Nicholas IV
  • 1294 Pope Celestine V
  • 1294-1303 Pope Boniface VIII
  • 1303-1305 Pope Benedict XI
  • 1305-1316 Pope Clement V
  • 1316-1334 Pope John XXII
  • 1321? The Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri
  • 1328 Anti-Pope Nicholas V
  • 1334-1342 Pope Benedict XII
  • 1342-1352 Pope Clement VI
  • 1350? English begins to emerge as the national language of England
  • 1350? Renaissance begins in Italy
  • 1352-1362 Pope Innocent VI
  • 1354 Earliest extant documentation stating the existance of the Shroud of Turin
  • 1362-1370 Pope Urban V
  • 1370-1378 Pope Gregory XI
  • 1378-1389 Pope Urban VI
  • 1378 Anti-Pope Clement VII

  • Late Middle Ages

    1380-1517 Period between the 1st complete English translation of the Bible and Martin Luther's 95 Theses
    1380-1382
    John Wycliffe, eminant theologian at Oxford, makes NT (1380) and OT (with help of Nicholas of Hereford) (1382) translations in English, 1st complete translation to English, included deutercanonical books, preached against abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy
  • 1384 John Purvey, follower of John Wycliffe, revises Wycliffe's translation
  • 1389-1404 Pope Boniface IX
  • 1390? Wycliffe's teachings condemned repeatedly in England
  • 1394 Anti-Pope Benedict XIII
  • 1404-1406 Pope Innocent VII
  • 1406-1417 Pope Gregory XII
  • 1408 Council of Oxford forbids translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither forbiddith the translations to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made amiss till they be by good examination amended." ("A Dialogue against Heresies")
  • 1409 Anti-Pope Alexander V
  • 1410 Anti-Pope John XXIII
  • 1412-1431 St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine
  • 1415 Council of Florence condemns all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were possessed by both religious houses and those of the nobility and tacitly accepted by Catholics
  • 1417-1431 Pope Martin V
  • 1431-1447 Pope Eugene IV
  • 1439 Anti-Pope Felix V
  • 1447-1455 Pope Nicholas V
  • 1453 Byzantium succeeded by the Ottoman Empire
  • 1455-1458 Pope Callistus III
  • 1458-1464 Pope Pius II
  • 1464-1471 Pope Paul II
  • 1466-1536 Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch scholar, Greek NT used in many 16th century translations
  • 1471-1484 Pope Sixtus IV
  • 1473-1481 Sistine Chapel built, under supervision of Giovanni de Dolci
  • 1478 Inquisition established by Pope Sixtus IV
  • 1483-1546 Martin Luther, leader of Protestant reformation, preached that only faith leads to salvation without mediation of clergy or good works, attacked authority of the Pope, rejected priestly celibacy, recommended individual study of the Bible (see 1517, 1522)
  • 1484-1492 Pope Innocent VIII
  • 1488-1569 Miles Coverdale, Augustinian friar who left the Order, repudiated Catholicism, 1st Protestant Bishop of Exeter
  • 1491-1556 Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuit order (see 1534)
  • 1492 Christopher Columbus's first voyage, discovers San Salvador - begins Spanish colonization of the New World
  • 1492-1503 Pope Alexander VI
  • 1503 Pope Pius III
  • 1503-1513 Pope Julius II
  • 1505-1572 John Knox, Protestant reformer in Scotland (see 1560)
  • 1506 Pope Julius II orders the Old St Peter's Basilica torn down and authorizes Donato Bramante to plan a new structure, demolition completed in 1606
  • 1508-1512 Michelangelo frescoes the Sistine Chapel's vaulted ceiling
  • 1509-1547 Henry VIII ruler of England
  • 1509-1564 John Calvin, preached predetermination, good conduct and success were signs of election
  • 1513-1522 Pope Leo X

  • Modern Era

    1517-1994 Modern Era of Christianity - Luther, Calvin lay the seeds of modern Protestantism, England breaks away from the Catholic Church
    1517 95 Theses (Martin Luther)
  • 1518-1532 St Terese of Avila
  • 1520 Luther excommunicated
  • 1522-1523 Pope Adrian VI
  • 1522 Luther's German NT translation
  • 1523-1534 Pope Clement VII
  • 1524 South German peasant uprising, repressed with Luther's support, begins 1.5 century long religious wars
  • 1525-1534 Tyndale's translation of the NT from Greek text of Erasmus (1466) compared against the Vulgate and the Pentateuch from the Hebrew (1525) compared to Vulgate and Luther's German version (1530), first printed edition, used as a vehicle by Tyndale for bitter attacks on the Church, reflects influence of Luther's NT of 1522 in rejecting "priest" for "elder", "church" for "congregation"
  • 1530 Augsburg Confession, Martin Luther founds the Lutheran Church
  • 1531 Reported apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1531 Earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal kills 30,000
  • 1534 Henry VIII breaks England away from the Catholic church, confiscates monastic property, beginning of Episcopal Church
  • 1534-1550 Pope Paul III
  • 1534 Jesuit order founded by Lyola (1491-1556), helped reconvert large areas of Poland, Hungary, and S. Germany and sent missionaries to the New World, India, and China
  • 1535-1537 Coverdale's Bible (see 1488), used Tyndale's (1525) translation along with Latin and German versions, included Apocrypha at the end of the OT (like Luther) as was done in later English versions, 1537 edition received royal license, but banned in 1546
  • 1536 Tyndale put to death, left his OT translation in manuscript, English ecclesiaastical authorities ordered his Bible burned because it was thought to be part of Lutheran reform
  • 1537-1551 Matthew Bible, by John Rogers (1500-1555), based on Tyndale and Coverdale received royal license but not authorized for use in public worship, numerous editions, 1551 edition contained offensive notes (based on Tyndale)
  • 1536-1541 Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement
  • 1539-1552 Richard Taverner's (1505-1577) revisions of Matthew Bible, mostly NT revisions since he didn't know Hebrew, 1st edition most reliable
  • 1539-1569 Great Bible, by Thomas Cromwell, 1st English Bible to be authorized for public use in English churches, defective in many places, based on last Tyndale's NT of 1534-1535, corrected by a Latin version of the Hebrew OT, Latin Bible of Erasmus, and Complutensian Polyglot, last edition 1569, never denounced by England
  • 1542 Conocation makes an unsuccessful attempt to correct the Great Bible against the Vulgate
  • 1543 Parliament bans Tyndale's translation as a "crafty, false and untrue transalation", although 80% of the words were in the RV
  • 1545-1563 Council of Trent, Catholic Reformation, or counter-reformation, met Protestant challenge, clearly defining an official theology
  • 1546 King Henry VIII forbids anyone to have a copy of Tyndale's or Coverdale's NT
  • 1547-1553 Edward VI ruler of England
  • 1549 Book of Common Prayer (Episcopal Church)
  • 1550-1555 Pope Julius III
  • 1550? St. Thomas More, Cranmer, and Foxe affirm the existence of English versions of portions of the Bible, including the Gospels (11th century), Mark, Luke, Epistles of Paul (14th century), Apocalypse (11th century)
  • 1553-1558 Mary I ruler of England, publications of English Scriptures cease (except for Geneva NT of 1557), many clerics leave England
  • 1553 Pontifical Gregorian University founded at Vatican City
  • 1555 Pope Marcellus II
  • 1555-1559 Pope Paul IV
  • 1556 Beza's Latin NT
  • 1558-1603 Protestant Elizabeth I is ruler of England
  • 1559-1566 Pope Pius IV
  • 1560 Geneva Bible, NT a revision of Matthew's version of Tyndale with use of Beza's NT (1556), OT a thorough revision of Great Bible, appointed to be read in Scotland (but not England), at least 140 editions
  • 1560 Scotch Presbyterian Church founded by John Knox (1505-1572), due to disagreement with Lutherans over sacraments and church government
  • 1563 39 Articles (Episcopal Church)
  • 1566-1572 Pope Pius V
  • 1571 Superior force of Turks intent upon conquering Christian Europe is beaten decisively by Christian sailors reportedly calling upon the name of Our Lady of the Rosary
  • 1572-1585 Pope Gregory XIII
  • 1572-1606 Bishop's Bible, an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible checked against the Hebrew text, 1st to be published in England by episcopal authority
  • 1582 Rheims NT, based on Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva, follows Wycliffe
  • 1585-1590 Pope Sixtus V
  • 1590-1591 Pope Urban VII
  • 1590 Sistine edition of the Vulgate
  • 1590 Michelangelo's dome in St Peter's Basilica completed
  • 1591-1592 Pope Innocent IX
  • 1592-1605 Pope Clement VIII
  • 1596 Ukranian Catholic Church forms when Ukranian subjects of the king of Poland are reunited with Rome, largest Byzantine Catholic Church
  • 1605 Pope Leo XI
  • 1605-1621 Pope Paul V
  • 1606 Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into a Latin cross
  • 1609 Baptist Church founded by John Smyth, due to objections to infant baptism and demands for church-state separation
  • 1609-1610 Rheims-Douay Bible, 1st Catholic English translation, OT published in two volumes, based on an unofficial Louvain text corrected by Sistine Vulgate (1590), NT is Rheims text of 1582
  • 1611-1800 King James (Authorized) Version, based on Bishop's Bible of 1572 with use of Rheims NT of 1582 - included Apocropha, alterations found in many editions through 1800, revisors accused of being "damnable corrupters of God's word"
  • 1621-1623 Pope Gregory XV
  • 1623-1644 Pope Urban VIII
  • 1633 AV published in Scotland
  • 1644 Long Parliament directed that only Hebrew canon only be read in *the Church of England (effectively removed the Apocropha)
  • 1644-1655 Pope Innocent X
  • 1655-1667 Pope Alexander VII
  • 1660-1685 Charles II king of England, restoration of monarchy in England beginning under Charles II, continuing through James II, reversed decision of Long Parliament of 1644, reinstating the Apocrypha, reversal not heeded by non-conformists
  • 1667-1670 Pope Clement IX
  • 1670-1676 Pope Clement X
  • 1676-1689 Pope Innocent XI
  • 1689-1691 Pope Alexander VIII
  • 1691-1700 Pope Innocent XII
  • 1700-1721 Pope Clement XI
  • 1714 AV published in Ireland
  • 1718 Catholic English version of NT by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than Reims- Douay
  • 1721-1724 Pope Innocent XIII
  • 1724-1730 Pope Benedict XIII
  • 1730-1740 Pope Clement XII
  • 1730 Catholic English version of NT, revision of Reims NT by Dr. Robert Witham
  • 1738 Methodist Church founded by Rev John Wesley
  • 1738-1816 New Catholic English versions of NT by Dr. Richard Challoner and Francis Blyth O.D.C., Bernard MacMahon, Dr Troy
  • 1740-1758 Pope Benedict XIV
  • 1752 AV published in New World colonies
  • 1758-1769 Pope Clement XIII
  • 1769-1775 Pope Clement XIV
  • 1775-1800 Pope Pius VI
  • 1800-1823 Pope Pius VII
  • 1801-1877 Brigham Young, Mormon leader, colonized Utah
  • 1811 Dr. Hay's revision of Challoner's version
  • 1815 Catholic Bible Society NT, based on Challoner's
  • 1816-1829 Challoner's 3rd revision, Dr. John Lingard's translation from Greek using Vulgate when possible
  • 1823-1829 Pope Leo XII
  • 1827 Mormon Church founded by Joseph Smith as a result of reported visions of the Angel Moroni
  • 1829-1831 Pope Pius VIII
  • 1830 Reported apparition of Mary in Paris, France, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1831-1846 Pope Gregory XVI
  • 1832 Church of Christ (Disciples) organized, made up of Presbyterians in distress over Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor
  • 1837-1901 Victoria queen of England
  • 1846-1878 Pope Pius IX
  • 1846 Reported apparition of Mary in La Salette, France, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1852-1922 Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehova's Witnesses movement in the 1870s
  • 1858 Reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1859-1959 90 Catholic NT editions, 56 Catholic editions of the whole Bible
  • 1868 Earthquakes in Peru and Ecuador kills 40,000
  • 1869-1870 First Vatican Council, 20th ecumenical, affirms doctrine of papal infallibility (ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject)
  • 1871 Reported apparition of Mary in Pontmain, France, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1878-1903 Pope Leo XIII
  • 1878 14-point creed of the Niagara Bible Conference, used by Fundamentalists
  • 1879 Reported apparition of Mary in Knock, Ireland, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1881-1894 Revised Version, called for by Church of England, used Greek based on Septuagint (B) and (S), Massoretic text used in OT, follows Greek order of words, greater accuracy than AV, includes Apocrypha, scholarship never disputed
  • 1898-1904 Twentieth Century NT, changed order of books to chronological
  • 1901 American Standard Version, recension of the RV, included words/phrases preferred by Americans, follows Greek order of words
  • 1901 Pentecostal Church formed in Topeka, Kansas in reaction to loss of evangelical fervor among Methodists and other denominations
  • 1902 Richard Weymouth NT, a careful literary translation
  • 1903-1914 Pope Pius X, most recent Pope to be canonized
  • 1910 5-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by Fundamentalists
  • 1910-1915 The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism
  • 1913-1924 James Moffat Bible, 1st one man translation in almost 400 years
  • 1914-1922 Pope Benedict XV
  • 1917 Reported apparition of Mary in Fatima, Portugal, "miracle of the sun" witnessed by between 70,000 and 100,000 people, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1919 World's Christian Fundamentals Association founded
  • 1922-1939 Pope Pius XI
  • 1925 Scopes Trial, caused division among Fundamentalists
  • 1925 United Church of Canada formed
  • 1932 Reported apparition of Mary in Beauraing, Belgium, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1933 Reported apparition of Mary in Banneux, Belgium, considered "worthy of belief" by the Catholic Church
  • 1936 Westminster NT, unofficial Catholic version (not commissioned by the Hierarchy)
  • 1939-1958 Pope Pius XII
  • 1945-1955 Knox Version, from Vulgate, asked for by English Hierarchy
  • 1946-1952 Revised Standard Version, revision of AV "based on consonantal Hebrew text" for OT and best available texts for NT, done in response to changes in English usage
  • 1949 Basic English Bible, only 1000 words, simple and direct style
  • 1949 Discovery of Qumran (Essenes?) scrolls, aka Dead Sea scrolls (see 68)
  • 1957 United Church of Christ founded by ecumenical union of Congregationalists and Evangelical & Reformed, representing Calvinists and Lutherans
  • 1958-1963 Pope John XXIII
  • 1958 J. B. Phillip's NT, uses only commonly spoken language
  • 1959 Statement of Faith (United Church of Christ)
  • 1961 New English Bible, renders original Basic English Bible for private use
  • 1962-1965 Second Vatican Council, 21st ecumenical, announced by Pope John XXIII in 1959, produced 16 documents which became official after approval by the Pope, purpose to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us" (Pope John XXIII)
  • 1963-1978 Pope Paul VI
  • 1966 RSV Catholic Edition, a joint effort between Catholics and the Church of England, a big step towards a common Catholic/Protestant Bible
  • 1966 Jerusalem Bible, translation from original languages based on Bible de Jerusalem, Catholic version
  • 1970 Confraternity Version, new Catholic translation from the originals which began before 1939 as a translation from the Vulgate, but ending up as a new translation from the Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT).
  • 1971 New American Standard Bible, updated the ASV using recent Hebrew and Greek textual discoveries
  • 1978 Pope John Paul I
  • 1978 New International Version, used eclectic Greek text, Massoretic Hebrew text, and current English style
  • 1978-? Pope John Paul II, reaffirmed conservative moral traditions (The Splendor of Truth) and the forbidding of women in the priesthood
  • 1979-1982? New King James Bible, complete revision of 1611 AV, updates archaisms while retaining style
  • 1981-? Reported apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje, Yugoslavia, not yet approved/disapproved by the Catholic Church
  • 1994 Declaration of cooperation between Evangelicals and Catholics

  • Sources

    The primary sources used in assembling this list include: