Encyclopedia  |   World Factbook  |   World Flags  |   Reference Tables  |   List of Lists     
   Academic Disciplines  |   Historical Timeline  |   Themed Timelines  |   Biographies  |   How-Tos     
Sponsor by The Tattoo Collection
Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index


The Kingdom of Thailand is a country in southeast Asia, bordering Laos and Cambodia to the east, the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia to the south, and the Andaman Sea and Myanmar to the west. Thailand is also known as Siam, which was the country's official name until May 11, 1949. The word Thai (ไทย) means "free" in the Thai language. It is also the name of the Thai people - leading some inhabitants, particularly the sizeable Chinese minority, to still use the name Siam.

Kingdom of Thailand
(In Detail)
National motto: None
Official language Thai
Capital Bangkok
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Prime MinisterThaksin Shinawatra
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 49th
514,000 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
 - Urban
Ranked 19th
Establishment 1238
Currency Baht
Time zone UTC +7
National anthem Phleng Chat
Internet TLD.TH
Calling Code66

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Provinces
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External Links


Main article: History of Thailand

Thailand's origin is traditionally tied to the short-lived kingdom of Sukhothai founded in 1238, after which the larger kingdom of Ayutthaya was established in the mid-14th century. Thai culture was greatly influenced by both China and India. Contact with various European powers began in the 16th century but despite continued pressure Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power, though Western influence led to many reforms in the 19th century.

A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. Known previously as Siam, the country first changed its name to Thailand in 1939, and definitively in 1949 after reverting to the old name post-World War II. During that conflict Thailand was in a loose alliance with Japan; following its conclusion Thailand became an ally of the United States. Thailand then saw a series of military coups d'état, but progressed towards democracy from the 1980s onward.


Main article: Politics of Thailand

The king has little direct power under the constitution but is a symbol of national identity and unity. The present monarch enjoys a great deal of popular respect and moral authority, which has on occasion been used to resolve political crises. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the king from among the members of the lower house of parliament, usually the leader of the party that can organise a majority coalition government.

The bicameral Thai parliament is the National Assembly or Rathasapha - รัฐสภา, which consists of a House of Representatives (the Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon - สภาผู้แทนราษฎร) of 500 seats and a Senate (the Wuthisapha - วุฒิสภา) of 200 seats. Members of both houses are elected by popular vote. Members of House of Representatives serve four-year terms, while Senators serve six-year terms. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court or Sandika - ศาลฎีกา, whose judges are appointed by the monarch. Thailand is an active member of the regional Association of Southeast Asian Nations.


Main article: Provinces of Thailand

Thailand is divided into 76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural), which are grouped into 5 groups of provinces. The name of each province is derived from its capital city.

North East South



Provinces are further subdivided into 795 districts (Amphoe), 81 sub-districts (King Amphoe) and 50 districts of Bangkok (khet) (number are for 2000), and furthermore into 7,236 communes (Tambon), 55,746 villages (Muban), 123 municipalities (Tesaban), and 729 sanitation districts (Sukhaphiban) (numbers are for 1984).


Main article:
Geography of Thailand

Thailand is home to several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is mountainous, with the highest point being the Doi Inthanon at 2,576 m. The northeast consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong river. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand. The south consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula.

The local climate is tropical and characterised by monsoons. There is a rainy, warm, and cloudy southwest monsoon from mid-May to September, as well as a dry, cool northeast monsoon from November to mid-March. The southern isthmus is always hot and humid. Major cities beside the capital Bangkok include Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Chiang Mai, and Songkhla.

See also: List of islands of Thailand


Main article: Economy of Thailand

After enjoying the world's highest growth rate from 1985 to 1995 - averaging almost 9% annually - increased speculative pressure on Thailand's currency, the baht, in 1997 led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the government to float the currency. Long pegged at 25 to the US dollar, the baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.2% that same year. The crisis spread to the Asian financial crisis.

Thailand entered a recovery stage in 1999, expanding 4.2% and grew 4.4% in 2000, largely due to strong exports - which increased about 20% in 2000. Growth was damped by softening of global economy in 2001, but picking up in the subsequent years due to strong growth in China and various domestic stimulation programs along the Dual-Track Policies promoted by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Growth in 2003 is estimated to be around 6.3%, and projected at 8% and 10% in 2004 and 2005.


Main article: Demographics of Thailand

Thailand's population is dominated by ethnic Thai and Lao, who make up three quarters of the population. There is also a large community of ethnic Chinese, who have historically played a disproportionately significant role in the economy. Other ethnic groups include Malays in the south, Mon, Khmer and various indigenous hill tribes.

Around 95% of Thais are Buddhists of the Theravada tradition, but small minorities of Muslims, Christians and Hindus also exist. The Thai language is Thailand's national language, written in its own alphabet, but many ethnic and regional dialects exist and English is widely taught in schools.


Main article: Culture of Thailand

Muay Thai, or Thai boxing, is the national sport in Thailand and its native martial art. It reached popularity all over the world in the last decade.

The standard greeting in Thailand is a prayer-like gesture called the wai. Taboos include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the highest and the foot the lowest part of the body.

Thai cuisine blends four fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour and salty.

Miscellaneous topics

External Links

[ Edit {}] Countries in Southeast Asia
Brunei | Cambodia | East Timor | Indonesia | Laos | Malaysia | Myanmar | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam