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Tatar invasions
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Tatar invasions

Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period.

Mongol-Tatar Golden Horde forces led by Batu Khan began attacking Europe in 1223, starting with Russia. They continued to defeat German, Polish, and Hungarian armies before turning back to go home, upon learning of the death of their Great Khan in 1241. It was in this during this series of invasions that Kraków was sacked.

The Tatars succeeded in establishing control over Russian principalities which they held until 1380, when they were defeated in the Battle of Kulikovo by Grand Prince of Muscovy Dmitry Donskoy.

Poland was invaded by Crimean Tatars in 1506 with an army 10,000 men, who were summarily destroyed. The Ottoman Tatars invaded in the summer of 1524, but were prevented from breaching deeply the boundary of Polish lands by Hetman Tarnowski. Tatar forces invaded again in 1589, invading Lvov and Tarnopol, but were beaten back by Cossack forces.

See also