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For the Taboo boardgame, see Taboo (game).

A taboo is a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom declared as sacred and forbidden; breaking of the taboo is usually considered objectionable or abhorrent by society. The term was borrowed from the Tongan language, and appears in many other Polynesian cultures as well. In those cultures, a tapu (or tabu) often has specific religious associations. Its first recorded instance in (English) use is by James Cook in 1771.

When an activity or custom is classified as taboo it is forbidden and interdictions are implemented concerning the topic, such as the ground set apart as a sanctuary for criminals. Some taboo activities or customs are prohibited under law and their guilt often carry severe penalties.

Taboos can include dietary restrictions (halal and kosher diets, religious vegetarianism, and the prohibition of cannibalism), restrictions on sexual activities and relationships (homosexuality, incest, bestiality, pedophilia), restrictions of bodily functions (flatulence), restrictions on the use of psychoactive drugs and restrictions on the use of offensive language.

No taboo is known to be universal, but some (such as incest taboo) occur in the majority of societies. Taboos may serve many functions, and often remain in effect after the original reason behind them has expired. Some have argued that taboos therefore reveal the history of societies when other records are lacking.

Taboos often extend to cover discussion of taboo topics. This can result in taboo deformation or replacement of taboo words. Marvin Harris, front figure of cultural materialism, endeavoured to explain taboos as a consequence of the ecologic and economic conditions of their societies.

Many contemporary artists deal with taboo including:

and film makers:

See also