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In Hinduism, Surya is the chief solar deity, son of Dyaush or Indra. He has hair and arms of gold. His chariot is pulled by either four or seven horses. Tvashtri is his son, as are the twins Yama and Yami and the Asvins (by Saranya). Another name also used in vedic astrology is Ravi.

A well-known Hindu mode of worship of Surya is done at the rising (and also setting) of the Sun, known as Surya Namaskara (Sun Salutation). Twelve yogic postures are assumed in order with twelve sacred Hindu mantras uttered for each and repeated once (left and right sides) to make twenty-four, corresponding with each hour of the day. It is considered most auspicious by Hindus to do twelve cycles of this (to represent the solar year). Its origins have been traced back to the time of the Ramayana (around 1500 BCE).

The Gayatri Mantra is also associated with Surya.