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Serbia
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Serbia

Republika Srbija
Република Србија

(In detail) (In detail)

Official language Serbian1
motto-unofficialSamo sloga Srbina spasava (Only Unity Saves the Serbs)
CapitalBelgrade
Area
 - Total
 - % water

88,361 km²
n/a
Population
 - Total (1998)
 - Density

11,206,847
126.83/km²
Ethnic groups
(2002)
Serbs: 66%
Albanians: 17%
Hungarians: 3.5%
Others: 13.5%
PresidentBoris Tadić
Prime MinisterVojislav Koštunica;
AnthemNo anthem (Hej Sloveni and Bože Pravde; used)
Time zoneUTC +1
CurrencySerbian dinar
Also euro in Kosovo
Internet TLD.yu (.cs)
Airline carrierJat Airways
1 In Vojvodina, the following languages are also official: Romanian, Ruthenian, Hungarian, Slovak and Croatian.

The Republic of Serbia is a republic of south-eastern Europe, which is united with Montenegro in a loose commonwealth known as the Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

The Kingdom of Serbia was established in the 11th century, and in the 13th century it eventually became the Serbian Empire. After 1918, Serbia as a founder was a part of Yugoslavia in its various forms. From 1992, following the independence of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, until February 2003, Serbia and Montenegro made up the two-member Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Serbia is populated mostly by Serbs. Significant minorities in Serbia include Albanians, Hungarians, Roma, Croatians, Slovaks, Romanians.

The President of Serbia is Boris Tadic elected with 53% of a vote in the second round of Serbian presidential election, 2004.

The current Prime Minister of Government of Serbia, as of March 2004, is the former Yugoslav president, Vojislav Kostunica, who replaced Slobodan Milosevic as Yugoslav president in October of 2000.

Serbian anthem is Hej Sloveni. "Hej Sloveni" is the anthem of the commonwealth of Serbia and Montenegro also. Serbs would like to have "Boze pravde" as their anthem and it is likely to change in the near future.

The Serbian coat of arms was devised in the aftermath of World War II, replacing the country's 19th century coat of arms.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Geography
3 Districts
4 Administrative subdivisions
5 Politics
6 Transportation
7 See also

History

Main article: History of Serbia
See also: History of Yugoslavia, History of Serbia and Montenegro

Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations Rascia/Raška, Bosnia, Neretva/Pagania, Zachumlie/Zahumlje, Trebounia/Travunija and Zeta.

The first Serb state emerged under Caslav Klonimirovic in the mid-10th century in Rascia. The first half of the 11th century saw the rise of the Vojislavljevic family in Zeta. Finally, the middle of the 12th century saw once more the rise of Rascia with the Nemanjic dynasty. The Nemanjic lead Serbia to a golden age which produced a powerful state with apogee under Tsar Stefan Dusan in the mid 14th century, before finally succumbing to Ottoman Empire (with Zeta, the last bastion, finally falling in 1499).

Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two uprisings in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. Serbia became a principality (1817-1882), kingdom (1882-1918) (internal politics of the time revolved largely around the dynastic rivalry between the Obrenovic and Karadjordjevic families) and part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1945, until 1929 the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) and part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 1992 and forming of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

The assassination in the Bosnian capital Sarajevo (June 28, 1914) of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg throne, by a young Bosnian Serb, provoked an ultimatum from Vienna requiring Serbia to allow Austro-Hungarian investigation of the plot on Serbian soil. Despite Serbia's acceptance (July 25) of nearly all the demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on July 28. Russia's mobilisation in support of Serbia in turn brought a German ultimatum requiring her to stand down her forces, and war was declared among the great powers in the first week of August.

After World War I Serbia joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which changed the name to Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II Serbia was part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Since 1992 Serbia was part of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia together with Montenegro and since 2003, member state of union with Montenegro.

Geography

Serbia is located in the Balkans, a historical and geographical region of southeastern Europe. It shares borders with Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. It is landlocked, although access to the Adriatic is available through Montenegro, and the Danube River provides shipping access to inland Europe and the Black Sea.

Serbia's terrain ranges from rich, fertile plains of the northern Vojvodina region, limestone ranges and basins in the east, and in the southeast ancient mountains and hills. The north is dominated by the Danube River. A tributary, the Morava River flows through the more mountainous southern regions.

The Serbian climate varies between a northern continental climate with cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall patterns, and a more Adriatic climate in the south with hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland.

Districts

District is called Okrug in Serbian. The Republic of Serbia is divided into 29 districts and the city of Belgrade:

  1. Bor
  2. Braničevo;
  3. Jablanica
  4. Kolubara
  5. Mačva;
  6. Moravica
  7. Nišava;
  8. Pčinja;
  9. Peć
  10. Pirot
  11. Podunavlje
  12. Pomoravlje
  13. Prizren
  14. Raška;
  15. Rasina
  16. Šumadija;
  17. Toplica
  18. Zaječar;
  19. Zlatibor
  20. North Bačka;
  21. South Bačka;
  22. West Bačka;
  23. North Banat
  24. Central Banat
  25. South Banat
  26. Srem
  27. Kosovo
  28. Kosovo-Pomoravlje
  29. Kosovska Mitrovica
  30. Belgrade

Administrative subdivisions

Serbia is made up of 108 counties. It has two autonomous provinces: Kosovo and Metohija in the south (with 30 counties), which is presently under the occupation of the United Nations, and Vojvodina in the north (with 54 counties).

The part of Serbia that is neither in Kosovo nor in Vojvodina is not an administrative division and is called central Serbia. In English this region is often called "Serbia proper" to denote "the part of the Republic of Serbia not including the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo; the ethnic and political core of the Serbian state," as the Library of Congress puts it. [1]. This usage was apparently also employed in Serbo-Croatian during the Yugoslav era (in the form of "uža Srbija"). Its use in English is purely geographical without any particular political meaning being implied.

Politics

On 4 February, 2003 parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia agreed to a weaker form of cooperation between Serbia and Montenegro within a commonwealth called Serbia and Montenegro.

After the fall of Slobodan Milosevic on 5 October 2000 the country was governed by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia. When Milosevic was arrested, the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) abandoned the coalition government. Nevertheless, in 2004 the DSS gathered enough support to form the new Government of Serbia, together with G17 Plus and SPO-NS, and the support of theSocialist Party of Serbia. The Prime Minister of Serbia is Vojislav Kostunica, leader of Democratic Party of Serbia.

New President of Serbia Boris Tadic, leader of the Democratic Party (DS), was elected in the Serbian presidential election, 2004 on 27 June 2004 after several unsuccessful attempts since 2002.

Laws concerning state-union are passed by Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro, whereas all the bills and laws about Serbia are being accepted in the National Assembly of Serbia.

Transportation

Serbia, and in particular the valley of Morava is often described as "the crossroad between the East and the West", which is one of primary reasons for its turbulent history. The valley is by far the easiest way of land travel from continental Europe to Greece and Asia Minor because it is not mountainous region.

European routes E65, E70, E75 and E80, as well as E662, E761, E762, E763, E771 and E851 are passing through the country. E70 western from Belgrade and most of E75 is modern highway or at least semihighway.

The Danube River, central Europe's connection to the Black Sea, flows through Serbia.

There are three international airports in Serbia, in Belgrade, Prishtina and newly built airport in Nis.

National airline carrier is Jat Airways and railway system is operated by Beovoz in Belgrade and ZTP on national level.

See also


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