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Sedimentology is that branch of geology concerned with understanding the characteristics of sedimentary rocks originally deposited in sedimentary basins.

Sedimentary rocks cover most of the earth's surface, record much of the earth's history, and harbor the fossil record. Sedimentology is closely linked to stratigraphy, the study of relationships between rocks.

Sedimentology advances through the study of modern sediments and the processes that deposit them and comparing these observations to studies of ancient sedimentary rocks. Sedimentologists apply their understanding of modern processes to sedimentary rocks to understand how they formed.

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