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Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
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Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

   

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland.

Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
National motto: A mare labor
Official language French
Capital Saint-Pierre
Prefect Claude Valleix
Area
 - Total
 - % water
(Not ranked)
242 km²
0.0%
Population
 - Total (2003)
(Not ranked)
6,976
Independence None
Currency Euro (EUR)
Time zone UTC-3
Internet TLD.PM
Calling Code508

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Culture
7 Military
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External Links

History

Main article: History of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Paleoeskimo or Dorset Indian artifacts have been uncovered in Saint-Pierre (Anse à Henry). Some of these date back to 3000 BCE.

Named the 'Eleven Thousand Virgins' by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes in 1521, the islands were also named the 'Islands of Saint-Pierre' by the French.

During the 16th century, the islands were used a base for the seasonal cod fishery by the French of La Rochelle, Grandville, Saint-Malo and the Basque Country. When French explorer Jacques Cartier was in Saint-Pierre in 1536 he made note of the French and Breton fishery.

The name Miquelon is of Basque origin as this island was used by fishermen from Saint-Jean de Luz.

Saint-Pierre was settled by the French in the early 17th century, abandoned under the Treaty of Utrecht, and returned to France in 1763 at the end of the Seven Years War.

Between 1763 and 1778, the islands became a place of refuge for Acadian deportees from Nova Scotia.

In 1778 the islands were attacked and the population deported by the British as retaliation for French support of the American War of Independence.

Although France regained the islands in 1783, by 1793, British hostility to the French Revolution and war between France and Britain led to another British attack on the islands and the deportation of the entire population.

The islands were finally returned to France after the second abdication of Napoleon in 1816.

The islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.

They have always been most important as a fishing centre, being in easy travel distance of the Grand Banks off Newfoundland, some of the world's richest fishing grounds.

The islands were used during American Prohibition as a base for smuggling liquor into the United States by many gangsters including Al Capone and Bill McCoy.

During the first years of World War II, the islands became part of Vichy France. Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French forces, was interested in gaining control of the islands. Following their liberation by Rear-Admiral Émile Muselier on Christmas day 1941, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon became the focus of a serious rift between Free French forces and the United States Department of State.

The islands became a full département d'outre mer of France in 1976. This status was modified in 1985 and the islands became a territory with special status (collectivité territoriale à statut particulier).

Politics

Main article: Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

In 1992, a boundary dispute with Canada was settled by an ad-hoc international tribunal.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The island of Saint Pierre is surrounded by smaller dependancies which include the island of Grand Colombier, Petit Colombier, and Ile aux Marins formally known as Ile aux Chiens.

Miquelon island was formed by the joining of three islands by sand dunes and quaternary deposits. These islands are Le Cap, Miquelon (Grande Miquelon), Langlade (Petite Miquelon).

The climate is very damp and windy, the winters are harsh and long. The spring and early summer are foggy and cool. Late summer and early fall are sunny.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The islands were dependent upon the cod fishery for the best part of the last four centuries. However, overfishing on the Grand Banks has led Canada to impose a long closure of this industry. Since fishing quotas are governed by Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the French Fishery have been seriously affected.

In Saint Pierre and Miquelon, many efforts are being made, with the help of the French Government, to diversify the local economy. Tourism, fish farming, crab fishing and agriculture are being developed.

The islands continue to print their own postage stamps but use the Euro currency.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Culture

Main article: Culture of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

French patriotism is still strong on the islands, and the islanders are proud that some of the soil on the island is French, having been brought over in the ballasts of ships.

Military

Defense is the responsibility of France (see also Military of France).

Miscellaneous topics

External Links


[ Edit {}] Countries in North America
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Dependencies: Anguilla | Aruba | Bermuda | Cayman Islands | Greenland | Guadeloupe | Martinique | Montserrat | Netherlands Antilles | Puerto Rico | Saint-Pierre and Miquelon | Turks and Caicos Islands | U.S. Virgin Islands | British Virgin Islands