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Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: [ʒεʧpɔs'pɔλita], zhech-pohs-POH-lee-tah) is a Polish calque translation of the Latin expression res publica ("public affair"). It has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally to denote any democratic state. Today, however, it is used solely in reference to the Polish State. Any other republic is referred to as republika in Polish.

The present-day official name Rzeczpospolita Polska is usually translated into English as "Republic of Poland". However, such translation, when talking about the 16-18th century Poland, may be confusing since in those times the Rzeczpospolita was a monarchy. For that period Rzeczpospolita is translated rather as "Commonwealth" (which is another English version of the Latin res publica), as in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The word Rzeczpospolita is also used as a name for three periods in Poland’s history:

See also:

Rzeczpospolita is also the title of one of Poland's leading daily newspapers.

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