Encyclopedia  |   World Factbook  |   World Flags  |   Reference Tables  |   List of Lists     
   Academic Disciplines  |   Historical Timeline  |   Themed Timelines  |   Biographies  |   How-Tos     
Sponsor by The Tattoo Collection
Raymond Poincaré
Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index

Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Poincaré (August 20, 1860October 15, 1934) was a French statesman.

Born in at Bar-le-duc, Lorraine, France, the son of Nicolas Antoinin Hélène Poincaré, a distinguished civil servant and meteorologist. Educated at the university of Paris, Raymond was called to the Paris bar, and was for some time law editor of the Voltaire. He had served for over a year in the department of agriculture when in 1887 he was elected deputy for the Meuse. He made a great reputation in the Chamber as an economist, and sat on the budget commissions of 18901891 and 1892. He was minister of education, fine arts and religion in the first cabinet (April – November 1893) of Charles Dupuy, and minister of finance in the second and third (May 1894 – January 1895).

In Alexandre Ribot's cabinet Poincaré became minister of public instruction. Although he was excluded from the Radical cabinet which followed, the revised scheme of death duties proposed by the new ministry was based upon his proposals of the previous year. He became vice-president of the chamber in the autumn of 1895, and in spite of the bitter hostility of the Radicals retained his position in 1896 and 1897. In 1906 he returned to the ministry of finance in the short-lived Sarrien ministry. Poincaré had retained his practice at the bar during his political career, and he published several volumes of essays on literary and political subjects.

Poincaré became Prime Minister in January of 1912, and began to pursue a hard-line anti-German policy, noted for restoring close ties with France's Russian ally. He was elected President of the Republic in 1913, in succession to Armand Fallières and attempted to make that office into a site of power for the first time since MacMahon in the 1870s. He generally managed to continue to dominate foreign policy, in particular, and his anti-German sentiments were blamed by some for the outbreak of the First World War. He became increasingly sidelined after the accession to power of Georges Clemenceau as Prime Minister in 1917.

In 1920, Poincaré's term as President came to an end, and two years later he returned to office as Prime Minister. Once again, his tenure was noted for its strong anti-German policies, especially the Ruhr Occupation of 1923–1924, which was carried out in response to the Cuno government's failure to pay reparations. Eventually, the increasing cost of the occupation led to a defeat for Poincaré's conservative coalition in the 1924 parliamentary elections, and his government fell. Financial crisis, however, brought him back to power in 1926, and he once again became Prime Minister and Finance Minister until his retirement in 1929. He died in Paris in 1934.

His brother, Lucien Poincaré (b. 1862), famous as a physicist, became inspector-general of public instruction in 1902. He is the author of La Physique moderne (1906) and L'Electricité (1907). Jules Henri Poincaré (b. 1854), also a distinguished physicist, belonged to another branch of the same family.

Table of contents
1 Poincaré's First Ministry, 14 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
2 Poincaré's Second Ministry, 15 January 1922 – 29 March 1924
3 Poincaré's Third Ministry, 29 March – 9 June 1924
4 Poincaré's Fourth Ministry, 23 July 1926 – 11 November 1928
5 Poincaré's Fifth Ministry, 11 November 1928 – 29 July 1929

Poincaré's First Ministry, 14 January 191221 January 1913

Changes

Poincaré's Second Ministry, 15 January 192229 March 1924

Changes

Poincaré's Third Ministry, 29 March9 June 1924

Poincaré's Fourth Ministry, 23 July 192611 November 1928

Changes

Poincaré's Fifth Ministry, 11 November 192829 July 1929


Preceded by:
Joseph Caillaux
1911-1912
Prime Ministers of France
1912-1913
Followed by:
Aristide Briand
1913
Preceded by:
Armand Fallières
1906-1913
Presidents of France
1913-1920
Followed by:
Paul Deschanel
1920
Preceded by:
Aristide Briand
1921-1922
Prime Ministers of France
1922-1924
Followed by:
Frédéric François-Marsal
1924
Preceded by:
Edouard Herriot
1926
Prime Ministers of France
1926-1929
Followed by:
Aristide Briand
1929

This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.