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Pun
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Pun

A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a play on words that transposes the meanings of words with similar sounds. This is usually for humorous effect, although one well known pun of serious intent is found in the Bible: Matthew 16.18:

"Thou art Peter Greek Πετρος, Petros], and upon this rock [Greek πετρα, petra] I will build my church."
(Note that while petra is "rock", the word for "stone" in general is petros, or πετρος.)

The word pun itself is thought to be originally a contraction of the (now archaic) pundigrion. This latter term is thought to have originated from punctilious, which itself derived from the Italian puntiglio (meaning "a fine point"), diminutive of punto, "point", from the Latin punctus, past participle of pungere, "to prick." These etymological sources are reported in the Oxford English Dictionary, which nonetheless labels them "conjecture".

Although there are several varieties of puns, there are two main linguistic methods for creating them:

The compound pun is one in which multiple puns are colocated for additional and amplified effect. An example of this is the following story:

A woman had three sons who emigrated from Ireland to the USA. They prospered and soon became the owners of a large cattle ranch. They weren't, however, sure what to call it, so they wrote back to their mother for advice. She sent a one-word reply on a postcard: Focus. Puzzled, they wrote back for an explanation. Her response was: "It's where the sons raise meat''" ["Sun's rays meet"].

(this pun seems to have inspired a number of real Focus Ranches, for example: .)

Sometimes puns can be used in a name. For instance the name Justin Tyme sounds like "just in time". This sort of naming is found in many works of fiction, for example, Piers Anthony's Xanth novels, The Eyre Affair and the Carmen Sandiego computer games.

Puns are also found in serious literature. See Alexander Pope, James Joyce, Vladimir Nabokov, and others discussed under word play.

Numerous pun formats exist:

See also


Quotations