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Province of Canada
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Province of Canada

Note: for information about Canada's present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada.

The Province of Canada was a British colony in North America, created by the fusion of the Canadas into one province by the Act of Union (1840). The former Lower Canada became known as Canada East and Upper Canada as Canada West.

The first capital was Kingston (Canada West). After 1843 the capital alternated between Toronto and Montreal, then finally was moved to Ottawa.

One of the chief purposes of the union was to assimilate French Canadians into British culture. The union notably failed to do this. In the end legislative deadlock between English and French led to a movement for a federal union. This movement led eventually to Canadian Confederation in 1867.

The Province of Canada ceased to exist upon Confederation, when it joined with the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to form the Dominion of Canada. The Province of Canada then redivided into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

See also