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President of the Soviet Union
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President of the Soviet Union

The President of the Soviet Union was the largely ceremonial Head of State of the USSR from 1990 to 1991.

The office had not existed until 1990; previously the Head of State had been the Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR from 1922-1938, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1938-1989, then the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet in 1989-90.

All effective executive political power was in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the Chairman exercising largely symbolic and figurehead duties. Four General Secretaries held the Chair of the Supreme Soviet simultaniously during their leaderships.

List of Heads of State:

Yakov Sverdlov (1885-1919) was the closest thing to a head of state of the Bolshevik state before the formal establishment of the Soviet Union.