Pi
- Alternative meanings: Pi (letter), π (movie);, Pi meson, π(X) Fundamental group;
Pi is also known as Archimedes' constant (not to be confused with Archimedes' number), Ludolph's number.
The first sixty-four decimal digits of π (sequence A000796 in OEIS) are:
- 3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74944 592...
Properties
Pi is an irrational number: that is, it cannot be written as the ratio of two integers. This was proven in 1761 by Johann Heinrich Lambert. In fact, the number is transcendental, as was proven by Ferdinand von Lindemann in 1882. This means that there is no polynomial with integer (or rational) coefficients of which π is a root. As a consequence, it is impossible to express π using only a finite number of integers, fractions and their roots.This result establishes the impossibility of squaring the circle: it is impossible to construct, using ruler and compass alone, a square whose area is equal to the area of a given circle. The reason is that the coordinates of all points that can be constructed with ruler and compass are special algebraic numbers.
Formulas involving π
Geometry
Pi appears in many formulas in geometry involving circles and spheres.
Geometrical shape | Formula |
---|---|
Circumference of circle of radius r | |
Area of circle of radius r | |
Area of ellipse with semiaxes a and b | |
Volume of sphere of radius r | |
Surface area of sphere of radius r | |
Volume of cylinder of height h and radius r | |
Surface area of cylinder of height h and radius r | |
Volume of cone of height h and radius r | |
Surface area of cone of height h and radius r |
Also, the angle measurement 180° (in degrees) is equivalent to π radians.
Analysis
Many formulas in analysis contain π, including infinite series (and infinite product) representations, integrals, and so-called special functions.
- Leibniz' formula:
- Wallis' product:
- An integral formula from calculus (see also Error function and Normal distribution):
- Basel problem, first solved by Euler (see also Riemann zeta function):
- Gamma function evaluated at 1/2:
- Euler's identity (called by Richard Feynman "the most remarkable formula in mathematics"):
- Property of Euler's totient function (see also Farey sequence):
Continued fractions
Pi has many continued fractions representations, including:
Number theory
Some results from number theory:- The probability that two randomly chosen integers are relatively prime is 6/π^{2}.
- The probability that a randomly chosen integer is square-free is 6/π^{2}.
- The average number of ways to write a positive integer as the sum of two perfect squares (order matters) is π/4.
Dynamical systems / ergodic theory
In dynamical systems theory (see also ergodic theory), for almost every real-valued x_{0} in the interval [0,1],Physics
Formulas from physics.- Coulomb's law for the electric force:
Probability and statistics
In probability and statistics, there are many distributions whose formulas contain π, including:- probability density function (pdf) for the normal distribution with mean μ and standard deviation σ:
- pdf for the (standard) Cauchy distribution:
Note that since , for any pdf f(x), the above formulas can be used to produce other integral formulas for π.
An interesting empirical approximation of π is based on Buffon's needle problem. Consider dropping a needle of length L repeatedly on a surface containing parallel lines drawn S units apart (with S > L). If the needle is dropped n times and x of those times it comes to rest crossing a line (x > 0), then one may approximate π using:
History
The symbol "π" for Archimedes' constant was first introduced in 1706 by William Jones when he published A New Introduction to Mathematics, although the same symbol had been used earlier to indicate the circumference of a circle. The notation became standard after it was adopted by Leonhard Euler. In either case, π is the first letter of περιμετρος (perimetros), meaning 'measure around' in Greek.Here is a brief chronology of π:
Date | Person | Value of π (world records in bold) |
---|---|---|
20th century BCE; | Babylonians | 25/8 = 3.125 |
20th century BCE | Egyptian Rhind Papyrus | (16/9)² = 3.160493... |
12th century BCE | Chinese | 3 |
434 BCE | Anaxagoras tried to square the circle with straightedge and compass | |
3rd century BCE | Archimedes | 223/71 < π < 22/7 (3.140845... < π < 3.142857...) 211875/67441 = 3.14163... |
20 BCE | Vitruvius | 25/8 = 3.125 |
130 CE | Chang Hong | √10 = 3.162277... |
150 | Ptolemy | 377/120 = 3.141666... |
250 | Wang Fau | 142/45 = 3.155555... |
263 | Liu Hui | 3.14159 |
480 | Zu Chongzhi | 3.1415926 < π < 3.1415927 |
499 | Aryabhatta | 62832/20000 = 3.1416 |
598 | Brahmagupta | √10 = 3.162277... |
800 | Al Khwarizmi | 3.1416 |
12th Century | Bhaskara | 3.14156 |
1220 | Fibonacci | 3.141818 |
1400 | Madhava | 3.1415926359 |
All records from 1424 are given as the number of correct decimal places (dps). | ||
1424 | Jamshid Masud Al Kashi | 16 dps |
1573 | Valenthus Otho | 6 dps |
1593 | François Viète | 9 dps |
1593 | Adriaen van Roomen | 15 dps |
1596 | Ludolph van Ceulen | 20 dps |
1615 | Ludolph van Ceulen | 32 dps |
1621 | Willebrord Snel, a pupil of Van Ceulen | 35 dps |
1665 | Isaac Newton | 16 dps |
1699 | Abraham Sharp | 71 dps |
1700 | Seki Kowa | 10 dps |
1706 | John Machin | 100 dps |
1706 | William Jones introduced the Greek letter π | |
1730 | Kamata | 25 dps |
1719 | De Lagny calculated 127 decimal places, but not all were correct | 112 dps |
1723 | Takebe | 41 dps |
1734 | Leonhard Euler adopted the Greek letter π and assured its popularity | |
1739 | Matsunaga | 50 dps |
1761 | Johann Heinrich Lambert proved that π is irrational | |
1775 | Euler pointed out the possibility that π might be transcendental | |
1789 | Jurij Vega calculated 140 decimal places, but not all are correct | 137 dps |
1794 | Adrien-Marie Legendre showed that π² (and hence π) is irrational, and mentioned the possibility that π might be transcendental. | |
1841 | Rutherford calculated 208 decimal places, but not all were correct | 152 dps |
1844 | Zacharias Dase and Strassnitzky | 200 dps |
1847 | Thomas Clausen | 248 dps |
1853 | Lehmann | 261 dps |
1853 | Rutherford | 440 dps |
1853 | William Shanks | 527 dps |
1855 | Richter | 500 dps |
1874 | William Shanks took 15 years to calculate 707 decimal places, but not all were correct (the error was found by D. F. Ferguson in 1946) | 527 dps |
1882 | Lindemann proved that π is transcendental (the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem) | |
1946 | D. F. Ferguson used a desk calculator | 620 dps |
1947 | 710 dps | |
1947 | 808 dps | |
All records from 1949 onwards were calculated with electronic computers. | ||
1949 | J. W. Wrench, Jr, and L. R. Smith were the first to use an electronic computer (the Eniac) to calcute π | 2,037 dps |
1953 | Mahler showed that π is not a Liouville number | |
1955 | J. W. Wrench, Jr, and L. R. Smith | 3,089 dps |
1961 | 100,000 dps | |
1966 | 250,000 dps | |
1967 | 500,000 dps | |
1974 | 1,000,000 dps | |
1992 | 2,180,000,000 dps | |
1995 | Kanada | > 6,000,000,000 dps |
1997 | Kanada and Takahashi | > 51,500,000,000 dps |
1999 | Kanada and Takahashi | > 206,000,000,000 dps |
2002 | Kanada and team | > 1,240,000,000,000 dps |
Numerical approximations of π
Due to the transcendental nature of π, there are no nice closed expressions for π. Therefore numerical calculations must use approximations to the number. For many purposes, 3.14 or 22/7 is close enough, although engineers often use 3.1416 (5 significant figures) or 3.14159 (6 significant figures) for more accuracy. The approximations 22/7 and 355/113, with 3 and 7 significant figures respectively, are obtained from the simple continued fraction expansion of π.An Egyptian scribe called Ahmes is the source of the oldest known text to give an approximate value for π. The Rhind Papyrus dates from the 17th century BCE and describes the value in such a way that the result obtained comes out to 256 divided by 81 or 3.160.
The Chinese mathematician Liu Hui computed π to 3.141014 (incorrect in the fourth decimal digit) in 263 C.E. and suggested that 3.14 was a good approximation.
The Chinese mathematician and astronomer Zu Chongzhi computed π to 3.1415926 to 3.1415927 and gave two approximations of π 355/113 and 22/7 in 5th century.
The Iranian mathematician and astronomer, Ghyath ad-din Jamshid Kashani, 1350-1439, computed π to 9 digits in the base of 60, which is equivalent to 16 decimal digit as:
- 2 π = 6.2831853071795865
The Slovene mathematician Jurij Vega in 1789 calculated the first 140 decimal places for π of which the first 137 were correct and held the world record for 52 years until 1841, when William Rutherford calculated 208 decimal places of which the first 152 were correct. Vega improved John Machin's formula from 1706 and his method is still mentioned today.
None of the formulas given above can serve as an efficient way of approximating π. For fast calculations, one may use formulas such as Machin's:
Extremely long decimal expansions of π are typically computed with the Gauss-Legendre algorithm and Borwein's algorithm; the Salamin-Brent algorithm which was invented in 1976 has also been used in the past.
The first one million digits of π and 1/π are available from Project Gutenberg (see external links below). The current record (December 2002) stands at 1,241,100,000,000 digits, which were computed in September 2002 on a 64-node Hitachi supercomputer with 1 terabyte of main memory, which carries out 2 trillion operations per second, nearly twice as many as the computer used for the previous record (206 billion digits). The following Machin-like formulas were used for this:
These approximations have so many digits that they are no longer of any practical use, except for testing new supercomputers and (obviously) for establishing new π calculation records.
In 1996 David H. Bailey, together with Peter Borwein and Simon Plouffe, discovered a new formula for π as an infinite series:
Other formulas that have been used to compute estimates of π include:
Open questions
The most pressing open question about π is whether it is a normal number, i.e. whether any digit block occurs in the expansion of π just as often as one would statistically expect if the digits had been produced completely "randomly". This must be true in any base, not just in base 10. Current knowledge in this direction is very weak; e.g., it isn't even known which of the digits 0,...,9 occur infinitely often in the decimal expansion of π.Bailey and Crandall showed in 2000 that the existence of the above mentioned Bailey-Borwein-Plouffe formula and similar formulas imply that the normality in base 2 of π and various other constants can be reduced to a plausible conjecture of chaos theory. See Bailey's above mentioned web site for details.
It is also unknown whether π and e are algebraically independent, i.e. whether there is a polynomial relation between π and e with rational coefficients.
The nature of π
In non-Euclidean geometry the sum of the angles of a triangle may be more or less than π, and the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter may also differ from π. This doesn't change the definition of π, but it does affect many formulae in which π appears. So, in particular, π is not affected by the shape of the universe; it is not a physical constant but a mathematical constant defined independently of any physical measurements.π culture
There is an entire field of humorous yet serious study that involves the use of mnemonic techniques to remember the digits of π, which is known as piphilology. For example, part of the school cheer of MIT is: "Cosine, secant, tangent, sine! 3 point 1 4 1 5 9!" See piphilology for more examples.March 14 (3/14) marks Pi Day which is celebrated by many lovers of π. On July 22, Pi Approximation Day is celebrated (22/7 is a popular approximation of π).
Related articles
- Greek letter pi
- Calculus
- Geometry
- Trigonometric function
- Pi through experiment
- Proof that π is transcendental;
- A simple proof that 22/7 exceeds pi
- Feynman point
- Petr Beckmann, A History of Pi
- Pi (movie)
External links
- Wikisource - Pi to 1,000 Places | 10,000 Places | 100,000 Places | 1,000,000 Places
- Project Gutenberg E-Text containing a million digits of Pi
- Statistics about the first 1.2 trillion digits of Pi
- PiHex Project
- J J O'Connor and E F Robertson: A history of Pi. Mac Tutor project
- Andreas P. Hatzipolakis: PiPhilology. A site with hundreds of examples of π mnemonics
- From the Wolfram Mathematics site lots of formulae for π
- Finding the value of Pi
- PlanetMath: Pi
- The pi-hacks Yahoo! Group
- A banner of approximately 220 million digits of pi
- http://3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944592.com - Pi to 1,000,000 Places
- A collection of Machin-type formulas for Pi
- A proof that Pi Is Irrational
- Calculating Pi: The open source project for calculating Pi.