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Personality psychology
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Personality psychology

Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual difference processes - that which makes us into a person. A large part of the work of personality psychologists has been defining what is, and what is not, personality. A scientific consensus has not been achieved.

The most common models incorporate four or five broad dimensions or factors. The least controversial dimension, observed as far back as the ancient Greeks, is:

The so-called five-factor models or Big Five models add the following four factors: The more traditional Big Four models accept extroversion as basic, and add the following three only: This model was based on the observations of Carl Jung and elaborated on to an important degree by the mother-daughter team of Katharine C. Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers in the 1930's and later on by David Keirsey.

In these more traditional models, the intuition factor is considered the most basic, dividing people into "N" or "S" personality types. An "N" is further assumed to be guided by the thinking or objectication habit, or feelings, and be divided into "NT" (scientist, engineer) or "NF" (author, human-oriented leader) personality. An "S", by contrast, is assumed to be more guided by the perception axis, and thus divided into "SP" (performer, craftsman, artisan) and "SJ" (guardian, accountant, bureaucrat) personality. These four are considered basic, with the other two factors in each case (including always extraversion) less important.

Critics of this traditional view have observed that the types are quite strongly stereotyped by professions, and thus may arise more from the need to categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice. This among other objections led to the emergence of the five factor view, which is less concerned with behavior under work stress and more concerned with behavior in personal and emotional circumstances.

Some critics have argued for more or fewer dimensions while others have proposed entirely different theories (often assuming different definitions of "personality").

A criticism of personality theory as a whole is that it leads people of little experience in clinical psychology to accept classifications, or worse offer advice, based on superficial analysis of one's profile.

Apart from the factor models, there are many other views on personality psychology, one of them George Kelly's personal construct theory. Important contributors to the field are Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, Otto Rank, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Albert Ellis, Erich Fromm, B. F. Skinner, Hans Eysenck, Albert Bandura, Gordon Allport, Snygg and Combs, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, Viktor Frankl, Rollo May, and Jean Piaget. The fields of Sociobiology and Buddhist Psychology are also of interest in this context.

Personality psychology is often closely associated with social psychology.

See also: clinical psychology, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

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