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Pernambuco
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Pernambuco


Statistics
Capital:Recife
Area:98,281 km²
Inhabitants:7,918,344
Pop. density:80.6 inh./km²
Timezone:GMT-3
ISO 3166-2:BR-PE
Governor:Jarbas Vasconcellos
Map

Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country. To the north are the states of Paraíba and Ceará, to the west is Piauí, to the south are Alagoas and Bahia, and to the east is the Atlantic Ocean.

Table of contents
1 Geography
2 History
3 Important Cities
4 Institutions
5 External links

Geography

Pernambuco has a territory covered mostly by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area. The coastal area is fertile, and was formerly covered by the Mata Atlântica. It is now place to extensive sugar cane plantations.

History

Pernambuco was first colonized by Portuguese settlers.

In 1534, Dom João III, king of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies. Pernambuco, one of these captaincies, was granted to Duarte Coelho. The administrator of a captaincy was known as Donatario.

Duarte Coelho had arrived at Pernambuco, then known as Nova Lusitânia (New Lusitania), in 1535 and established his government in the area on which Olinda was to be founded.

After bloodshed battles against the Caetê indians, which had an alliance with the French, Duarte Coelho founded Olinda at the site of the Marin indian village. This victory made possible to estabilize the captaincy and to start Portuguese rule.

The village (vilas) of Olinda (first capital) and Igarassu were founded 1537.

Pernambuco was one of the two only prosperous captaincies (the other was São Vincente), mainly due to the plantation of sugar cane and cotton. With the support of Dutch East India Company, The sugar mills (engenho) were constructed and the sugar industry had greatly developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar; by 1640s, more than 24,000 tons of sugar were exported to Amsterdam.

In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possession in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch. Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen, count of Nassau, was appointed as ruler of the Nieuw Holland (Dutch colonization enterprise in Brazil).

Nassau's government built Maritania or Mauristaad (Recife) on delta islands, which is somewhat silimilar to Holland's topography. This moved the political focus from Olinda to Recife. The Dutch administration of Nassau's was remarkably noted by advancements in urbanism, culture, and science. The Dutch legacy is still recognizable in Pernambuco's people, accent, and architecture.

Portugal reconquered Pernambuco after Battle of Guararapes in 1654 and Olinda had regained its status of political center. However, Recife remained the commercial /port city.

In 1710 the Mascate War took place in Pernambuco. This conflict put the mascates (traveling salesman) from Recife against the establishment hosted in Olinda and led by the Senhores de Engenho (owners of the sugar mills, literally: sugar mill lords).

Pernambuco was the home for the most important rebellions and insurrections in Brazilian history, especially in the 19th century.

1817 was the year of the Pernambucan Revolution, a republican separatist movement which resulted in the creation of the Republic of Pernambuco. The main causes of the revolution was insatisfaction with the colonial administration. The republic was declared on March 7, 1817. After military intervention, the secession ended on May 20, 1817. The current flag of Pernambuco is actually the flag of that Republic.

As a reaction to the Emperor Dom Pedro I dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, the Confederation of the Equator was set on July 2, 1824. The Confederation was another separatism movement which emcompassed the provinces of Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, and Ceará. On November 29, 1824, the Confederated forces capitulate to the imperial army.

Pernambuco was the site of the brief liberal republican Praieira revolt in 1848, which was Brazil's response to the European year of failed liberal revolutions. The military officer who put it down was Deodoro da Fonseca, later briefly the first president of the Brazilian republic.

Important Cities

Institutions

External links


States of Brazil
Acre | Alagoas | Amapá | Amazonas | Bahia | Ceará | Federal District | Espírito Santo | Goiás | Maranhão | Mato Grosso | Mato Grosso do Sul | Minas Gerais | Pará | Paraíba | Paraná | Pernambuco | Piauí | Rio de Janeiro | Rio Grande do Norte | Rio Grande do Sul | Rondônia | Roraima | Santa Catarina | São Paulo | Sergipe | Tocantins


Pernambuco is also the name of a tropical tree used for lumber and red dye. Species Caesalpinia echinata. It was also called brazilwood, and gave its name to the country, rather than the other way around.