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Oxford
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Oxford

This is about the city of Oxford in England. See also Other cities named Oxford.

City of Oxford

Shown within Oxfordshire
Geography
Status: City (1542)
Region: South East England
Admin. County: Oxfordshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 306th
45.59 km²
Admin. HQ: Oxford
ONS code: 38UC
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2002 est.)
- Density
Ranked 127th
134,605
2,953 / km²
Ethnicity: 87.1% White
4.8% S.Asian
2.5% Afro-Carib.
1.8% Chinese
Politics
Oxford City Council
http://www.oxford.gov.uk/
Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
Executive:  
MPs: Andrew Smith, Evan Harris

Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). Its latitude and longitude are 51°45'07" N and 1°15'28" W (at Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre). It is home to the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world.

It is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by Matthew Arnold for the harmonious architecture of the university buildings. Unlike its great rival, Cambridge, Oxford is an industrial city, particularly associated with car manufacture in the suburb of Cowley.

Oxford is twinned with Bonn, Grenoble, Leiden, and León.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Transport
3 Tourist Attractions
4 Media and press
5 Literature in Oxford
6 Images of Oxford
7 See also
8 External links

History

Oxford was first occupied in Saxon times, and was initially known as "Oxanforda". It began with the foundations of St Frideswide's nunnery in the 8th century, and was first mentioned in written records in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 912. In the 10th century Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes.

The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th century records. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College (1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264).


Motto: Fortis est veritas
(Latin: "Truth is strong")]]

Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford is unique as a college chapel and cathedral in one foundation. Originally the Priory Church of St Frideswide, the building was extended and incorporated into the structure of Christ Church College as a chapel, and has had the dual function as the Cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford since 1546. The relationship between "town and gown" has often been uneasy, several university students were killed in the St Scholastica Day Riot of 1355.

During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in 1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was strong support in the town for the Parliamentarian cause. The town yielded to Parliamentarian forces under General Fairfax in 1646.

In 1790 the Oxford Canal connected the city with Coventry, linking with the River Thames, and in the 1840s the Great Western Railway and London and North Western Railway linked Oxford with London.

In the 19th century the controversy surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought.

Oxford's Town Hall was built during the reign of Queen Victoria. Though Oxford has city status and is a Lord Mayoralty, the seat of the city council is still called by its traditional name of "Town Hall".

By the early 20th century Oxford was experiencing rapid industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing industries becoming well established by the 1920s. Also during that decade a major car-building industry was begun by the Morris Motor Company.

On 6 May 1954 Roger Bannister, a student at Pembroke College, ran the first authenticated sub-four minute mile at the Iffley Road track in Oxford.

Oxford's "other" university Oxford Brookes University, formerly Oxford Polytechnic, based at Headington, was given its charter in 1991.

Transport

Oxford is located some 50 miles (80 km) west of London; the cities are linked by the M40 motorway, which also links northwards to Birmingham.

Rail connections include services to London (Paddington), Bournemouth, Worcester and Bicester. The city also has regular train services northwards to Birmingham, Coventry and the north.

The Oxford Canal connects to the River Thames at Oxford.

Tourist Attractions

Oxford has many major tourist attractions, some associated with the university. As well as several famous institutions (such as the Ashmolean Museum, the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Bodleian Library), the town centre is home to Carfax Tower and a historical themed ride, The Oxford Story. In the summer, punting on the Thames (known as the Isis as it flows through Oxford) and the Cherwell is popular.

Other notable attractions include:

Media and press

As well as the BBC national radio stations, Oxford and the surrounding area has several local stations, including BBC Radio Oxford, Fox FM and Passion 107.9. A local TV station, Six TV - The Oxford Channel [1] is also available.

Popular local papers include the Oxford Mail, the Oxford Times, and the Oxford Star.

Literature in Oxford

Colin Dexter wrote and set his Inspector Morse mystery novels in Oxford.

Famous Oxford-based authors include:

Images of Oxford

See also

External links


Districts of England - South East England
Adur | Arun | Ashford | Aylesbury Vale | Basingstoke and Deane | Bracknell Forest | Brighton and Hove | Canterbury | Cherwell | Chichester | Chiltern | Crawley | Dartford | Dover | Eastbourne | East Hampshire | Eastleigh | Elmbridge | Epsom and Ewell | Fareham | Gosport | Gravesham | Guildford | Hart | Hastings | Havant | Horsham | Isle of Wight | Lewes | Maidstone | Medway | Mid Sussex | Milton Keynes | Mole Valley | New Forest | Oxford | Portsmouth | Reading | Reigate and Banstead | Rother | Runnymede | Rushmoor | Sevenoaks | Shepway | Slough | Southampton | South Bucks | South Oxfordshire | Spelthorne | Surrey Heath | Swale | Tandridge | Test Valley | Thanet | Tonbridge and Malling | Tunbridge Wells | Vale of White Horse | Waverley | Wealden | West Berkshire | West Oxfordshire | Winchester | Windsor and Maidenhead | Woking | Wokingham | Worthing | Wycombe

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Berkshire - Buckinghamshire - East Sussex - Hampshire - Kent - Oxfordshire - Surrey - West Sussex