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Orthopedic surgery
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Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery is used to treat musculoskeletal problems. Orthopedics is concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries taking into consideration the pathology, genetics, intrinsic, extrinsic and biomechanical factors involved. Orthopedic surgeons are MDs or DOs and have a minimum of five years of advanced residency training and may serve a fellowship for training in any of several sub-specialty areas, such as Sports Medicine, Trauma, Adult Reconstruction, Hand Surgery, Foot & Ankle Surgery, Spine Surgery, Rheumatology, Pediatric Orthopedics, Geriatric Orthopedics, or Industrial Medicine, just to name a few. Orthopedic surgeons treat patients using surgical and non-surgical methods to correct problems. Orthopedic surgeons work closely with many Allied Health professionals, such as Athletic Trainers, Physical Therapists, Occupational Therapists, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation physcians and other physicians in related fields in the treatment of patients.

Toronto, Canada, became an early centre of excellence in orthopedic surgery, renowned for training and creative development since orthopedics was defined as a distinct surgical specialty by the pioneer surgeon Robert I Harris in the 1950s. Generations of orthopaedic surgeons graduating from the University of Toronto program have since contributed to many of the important achievements in orthopedics that have improved the lives of people with bone and joint injuries and diseases.

One eminent example is the work of David L MacIntosh who pioneered the first successful surgery for the management of the torn anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. This common and serious injury in skiers, field athletes and dancers had invariably brought an end to their pursuits due to permanent joint instability. Working especially with injured football players in his role as sports surgeon for the University of Toronto, he devised a way to reroute viable ligament from adjacent structures to preserve the strong and complex mechanics of the knee joint and restore stability throughout its range of motion, conferring a fully functional joint. This for the first time in history could reliably permit the athlete to return to the demands of (even professional) sport or dance after a period of healing. The two major variants of this repair that MacIntosh developed in the 1960ís and 1970ís for the torn anterior cruciate ligament are still the operations of choice performed today.

Developments in Orthopedic Surgery

Particularly important in the development in orthopedic surgery was the use of
arthroscopic tools to perform minimally invasive reconstructions of torn ligaments. This advance helped ligament repair patients recover in a few hours instead of a few weeks, as was the case with open-joint surgery.

Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine; - General practice; - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Public Health; & Occupational Medicine; - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases;s - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery; - Cardiothoracic surgery; - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery; - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery; - Urology - Vascular surgery;