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Orenburg (Оренбу́рг) is a city on the Ural River, administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Volga Federal District, Russia, 1478 km south of Moscow.

It was founded in 1735 and has been relocated three times; on its present site the city dates back to 1743. It was an important military outpost on the frontier with the nomad Kazakhs. After Central Asia was incorporated into the Russian Empire, Orenburg became a trading station and a prominent railway junction on the way from the new Central Asian possessions and Siberia. In 1920-1925 Orenburg was the capital of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Russia (renamed Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925, now the country of Kazakhstan)

The population of Orenburg is about 548,800 (census 2002).

From 1938 to 1957, the city was named Chkalov (Чка́лов) (after Valery Chkalov).

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