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Ophthalmology is the branch of Medicine / Surgery which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment.

The word ophthalmology has an "h" after the "p". The first syllable is pronounced "aahf," like the "oph" in "sophomore." It comes from the Greek root "ophthalmos-" meaning "eye;" ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes."

Table of contents
1 Professional requirements
2 Sub-specialities
3 Ophthalmic surgery

Professional requirements

Ophthalmologists are doctors who have received additional advanced training in ophthalmology. In the US, an ophthalmologist usually has had three to five years residency in ophthalmology and board certification. The American Academy of Ophthalmology promotes the use of the phrase "Eye MD" to distinguish ophthalmologists from optometrists, who are doctors of optometry (OD) and detect, treat, manage, and refer cases of eye disease, but do not hold MDs. The American Optometric Association characterizes optometrists as "primary eye care providers." For more on the distinctions, see Optometry.

In India, either M.D./M.S./D.O.M.S/D.N.B. in Ophthalmology is necessary before one can expertly deal with various problems of the eye.

In U.K., MRCOpth, FRCOpth, MRCSEd, FRCSEd lead to specialisation in eye diseases.


Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain part of the eye. Some of them are:

Ophthalmic surgery

Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine; - General practice; - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Public Health; & Occupational Medicine; - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases;s - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery; - Cardiothoracic surgery; - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery; - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery; - Urology - Vascular surgery;