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Open systems
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Open systems

The term Open system refers to dynamics which are open to influence from outside.

In general terms, meme systems which are not open to outside information or lack sufficient complexity become "stale" such as an ecosystem in a "Jar".

In artificial intelligence Doug Lenat's AM was an automated closed system to generate mathematical discoveries from a finite set of basic mathematical principles which demonstrated that closed AI systems run down without external stimulation as the system begins to run out of discoveries over time.

In decision making, groupthink can occur in systems that insulate themselves or filter input.

More generally the political principle of an open society as promoted by George Soros is considered a means of increasing the productivity and freedom of peoples, the representativeness of governments and the health of human culture.

Advocates of collective intelligence express a need for open participation such as in Wikipedia or in the theory of e-consensus.

In computing, Open Systems refers to microcomputer OSes like UNIX and Microsoft Windows, and is used to differentiate these from older minicomputer and mainframe systems.

See also: closed system