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State of Ohio
(In Detail) (Full size)
State nickname: "The Buckeye State"

Other U.S. States
Largest City Columbus
Governor Bob Taft
- Total
- Land
- Water
- % water
Ranked 34th
116,096 kmē
106,154 kmē
10,044 kmē
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 7th
Admittance into Union
- Order
- Date

August 7, 1953, retroactive to March 1, 1803
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
38°27'N to 41°58'N
80°32'W to 84°49'W
355 km
355 km
472 meters
260 meters
139 meters
ISO 3166-2:US-OH

Ohio is a state in the Midwest of the United States. It was the first and eastern-most state in the Midwest admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance. Its U.S. postal abbreviation is OH; its old-style abbreviation is O. Ohio is an Iroquois word meaning "great water." The name refers to the Ohio River that forms its southern border.

The US Navy has named a fleet of ships USS Ohio in honor of this state.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Law and Government
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Demographics
6 Important cities and towns
7 Education
8 Professional sports teams
9 External link


Ohio, the region north of the Ohio River and south of the Great Lakes, was originally controlled by various native tribes, primarily the Iroquois at the time of European colonization. During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region.

In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war known in North America as the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the old Northwest to Great Britain.

Britain soon passed the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited the American colonists from settling in Ohio Country. British control of the region ended with the American victory in the American Revolution, after which the British ceded claims to Ohio and the territory in the West to the Mississippi River to the United States.

The United States created the Northwest Territory in 1787 under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, also known as the Freedom Ordinance because for the first time slavery would be prohibited from an entire American region. The states of the Midwest would be known as free states, in contradistinction to those states south of the Ohio River known as slave states, and later, as Northeastern states abolished slavery in the coming two generations, the free states would be known as Northern States. The Northwest Territory originally included the Ohio Country. The Indiana Territory was later created, reducing the Northwest Territory to the size of present-day Ohio.

Under the Northwest Ordinance, Ohio could begin the process to statehood once its population exceeded 5,000. On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of Congress that declared Ohio the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission, so, in 1953, President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.

In 1835, Ohio fought a bloodless war with Michigan over the city of Gargamesh, (now Toledo, Ohio) known as the Toledo War. Congress intervened, giving Toledo to Ohio.

Law and Government

Ohio's capital is Columbus, located close to the center of the state. Although historically control of the state has occillated between the two major parties, Republicans currently dominate state government. The governor, Robert A. Taft II, is a Republican, as are all other non-judicial statewide elected officials. Both houses of the Ohio General Assembly are also firmly in Republican control, 12 of 18 representatives in the US House are Republicans, and both US Senators, Michael DeWine and George V. Voinovich, are members of the GOP. However, all of the mayors of the six largest cities in the state (Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Akron, Toledo, and Dayton) are Democrats. Due to a more sluggish economy than the country as a whole, Ohio is considered a key battleground state in the 2004 U.S. Presidential election. The state is vital to President George W. Bush's election chances, as it is a state he won by nearly 4 points in 2000 and by the fact that no Republican has ever been elected President without winning Ohio. See Also:

The Buckeye State
State Animal:White-tailed Deer
State Bird:Cardinal
State Capital:Columbus
State Flower:Scarlet Carnation
State Wildflower:Large white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
State Insect:Ladybird Beetle
State Song:"Beautiful Ohio"
State Rock Song:"Hang On Sloopy"
State Tree:Ohio Buckeye
State Fossil:Isotelus Trilobites
State Drink:Tomato juice
State Reptile:Black racer snake
State Gemstone:Ohio Flint
State Motto:"With God all things are possible"


See: List of Ohio counties - List of cities in Ohio - List of villages in Ohio - List of Ohio townships - Ohio public lands

Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. It borders Pennsylvania on the east, Michigan and , Ontario, Canada across Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast.

Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Maumee River, Miami River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River.


Ohio, a major producer of machines, tools, and other products, is one of the leading industrial states. As part of the Midwestern Corn Belt, agriculture also plays an important role in the state's economy. In addition, however, Ohio's historical attractions, varying landscapes, and recreational opportunities are the basis for a thriving tourist industry. Over 2,500 lakes and 70,000 kilometers of river landscapes are a paradise for boaters, fishermen, and swimmers. Of special historical interest are the Native American archeological sites -- including grave mounds and other sites.

Ohio's 1999 total gross state product was $362 billion, placing it 7th in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $28,400, 19th in the nation. Ohio's agricultural outputs are soybeans, dairy products, corn, tomatoes, hogs, cattle, poultry and eggs. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, food processing, and electric equipment.


As of the 2000 census, the population of Ohio is 11,353,140. Its population grew 4.7% (506,025) from its 1990 levels. According to the 2000 census, 85% (9,645,453) identified themselves as White, 84% (9,538,111) identified themselves as non-Latino white, 1.9% (217,123) as Hispanic or Latino, 11.5% (1,301,307) as black, 1.2% (132,633) as Asian, 0.2% (24,486) as American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.02% (2,749) as Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 0.8% (88,627) as other, and 1.4% (157,885) identified themselves as belonging to two or more races.

6.6% of its population were reported as under 5, 25.4% under 18, and 13.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population.

Important cities and towns

See: List of cities in Ohio


Colleges and universities

(note: the University of Dayton is not one of Ohio's state universities; it is a private, Roman Catholic university run by the Society of Mary) See List of Ohio colleges

Professional sports teams

External link

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