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Octane is an organic chemical, specifically an alkane, with formula C8H18. (8 carbon alkene).  Octane has many isomers.  One of those isomers, isooctane (2,2,4-trimetylpentane), is especially important, because its octane rating is by definition 100.  It is an important constituent of petrol (US:gasoline).

Octane ratings are ratings used to represent the anti-knock performance of petrol by giving the percentage of octane in an octane-heptane mixture that would have the same performance.

See also: cetane in diesel.

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