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Nottingham
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Nottingham

This article is about the English city. For others, see Nottingham (disambiguation).

City of Nottingham
Geography
Status: Unitary, City (1897)
Region: East Midlands
Ceremonial County: Nottinghamshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 274th
74.61 km²
Admin. HQ: Nottingham
ONS code: 00FY
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2002 est.)
- Density
Ranked 28th
270,005
3,619 / km²
Ethnicity: 84.9% White
6.5% S.Asian
4.3% Afro-Carib.
Politics

Nottingham City Council
http://www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk
Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
Executive: Labour
MPs: Graham Allen, John Heppell, Alan Simpson

Nottingham is a city located in the East Midlands of England. Nottingham lies on the River Trent, which flows from Stoke-on-Trent to the Humber - the only English river to flow North. Nottingham's boundaries are tightly drawn and exclude the suburbs of Hucknall, Arnold, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ruddington, Beeston, Long Eaton, Stapleford, and Ilkeston - some of which are actually in Derbyshire.

The 2001 census recorded a population of 284,300 in Nottingham itself, with around 750,000 people living in the surrounding conurbation. Nottingham was the traditional county town of Nottinghamshire but since April 1, 1998 has been a unitary authority.

Nottingham is famous for its involvement in lace-making, the supposedly exceptional beauty of its young women, and its association with the legendary outlaw Robin Hood.

Nottingham is also nationally famous for the high ratio of females to males - given at various times between 3:1 to 6:1. In 2001, however, the ratio was an unremarkable 1.015:1.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Industry
3 Education
4 Culture and Sport
5 Transport
6 Geography
7 Twin Cities
8 External Links

History

Founded as a Saxon settlement, Nottingham was later captured by the Danes (Vikings) and in the 9th century became one of the five boroughs (fortified towns) of Danelaw. From its earliest beginnings, parts of the settlement have included man-made caves, dug into soft sandstone. During this period, the settlement went by names including Tigguo Cobauc ("House of Caves") and Snottingaham (from the Anglo-Saxon Chieftan Snot's people (inga) of the riverside/hillside (a) village (ham) ). The populace are grateful that the S became lost in the course of history.

In the 11th century a castle was constructed on a sandstone outcrop by the River Trent and a town grew around the castle. (see Nottingham Castle) The cave network, substantially expanded, became home to a large proportion of the poorer populace -- particularly those involved in the tanning industry. The caves were gradually abandoned in the 18th and 19th centuries, but came into use again as air raid shelters in World War II. A section of the cave network under the Broadmarsh shopping centre is now open as a tourist attraction, and some parts are still used as pub cellars.

A section of the caves under the castle is still in regular use as an indoor rifle range (Nottingham Rifle Club).

Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem Inn, partly built into the cave system below the castle and a major meeting point for those going on the Crusades in the Middle Ages (hence its name), lays claim to being the oldest pub in Britain. However, since two other Nottingham pubs -- Ye Olde Salutation Inn and the Bell Inn -- both call themselves the oldest in Nottingham they must be considered contenders for the title of oldest in Britain as well. The roots of the multiple claims lies can be traced to various subtleties of definition in terms such as "public house", "inn" and so on.

It was in the Middle Ages that the legend of Robin Hood first arose. Robin Hood is said to have lived in Sherwood Forest, to the north of the city, and the Sheriff of Nottingham to have been his greatest enemy. While the legends are almost certainly untrue, particularly in their details, they have had a major impact on Nottingham, with Robin Hood imagery a popular choice for local businesses and many modern tourist attractions exploiting the legend.

The English Civil War began in Nottingham in 1642, when King Charles I raised his standard upon Nottingham castle. The original Nottingham castle was demolished by the victorious Parliamentarians in 1651. The castle mansion was built on this site, but was gutted in 1831 during riots over the Reform Bill, the current occupant being a known opponent of extending the franchise. In 1878 it was reopened as an art museum.

A major industry in the 19th century was lace-making, with Nottingham becoming famous for its lace. While some lace-making still goes on in the city, it is no longer of much economic significance. Also in the 19th century, the luxurious Nottingham Park Estate was built, on the castle's former deer park.

Famous people born in or near Nottingham include William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, the author D.H. Lawrence and the fashion designer Paul Smith. The poet Lord Byron resided, and is buried, at nearby Newstead Abbey.

Industry

Nottingham is the home of the headquarters of Boots the Chemists, founded in the city by John Boot in 1849 and expanded substantially by his son Jesse. Other large current employers include the credit reference agency Experian, the energy company Powergen and the tobacco company John Player. A major industry until recently was bicycle making, the city being the birthplace of Raleigh Cycles in 1886. However, the company's factory on Triumph Road, famous as the location for the filming of Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, was demolished in summer 2003. Other major industries in the city include engineering, textiles, knitwear and electronics.

Education

Nottingham houses two universities: the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University. The University of Nottingham's teaching hospital, Queen's Medical Centre, is the largest hospital in the UK. Other notable educational institutions include the further education college New College Nottingham and Nottingham High School.

Culture and Sport

Nottingham has two main theatres -- the Nottingham Playhouse and the Theatre Royal (which also houses the Royal Concert Hall). There are also several art galleries which often receive national attention -- particularly noteworthy are the castle museum and the Angel Row gallery (attached to the main library). Both of the city's universities also put on a wide range of plays, concerts, and other events throughout term time.

The annual Goose Fair is extremely popular. More generally, the city is regarded as having a good night-life, with many clubs and bars in the centre of town that are popular amongst both the local and student communities.

The city is home to two association football teams, First Division Nottingham Forest, who under their most famous manager Brian Clough won the European Championship twice, and Second Division Notts County. The Trent Bridge cricket ground, home of Nottinghamshire Country Cricket Club, is frequently a venue for international Test matches.

Also in the city is the UK's National Ice Centre, a large ice skating rink; the city's links to ice skating can be traced back to argaubly its most famous children of recent times, Olympic ice dancing champions Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean. The city also has a rugby club, and a large tennis centre, where the annual Samsung Open is held in the weeks immediately prior to Wimbledon.

Nottingham has won the Britain in Bloom competition, in the Large City category, in 1997, 2001 and 2003. It also won the Entente Florale Gold Award in 1998.

Transport

Nottingham is close to the M1 motorway and also served by train services to London, Birmingham, the north and all other parts of the UK. It is a short distance from Nottingham East Midlands Airport, making the city easily accessible from all parts of the world. Internally, the city is well-served by buses and a tram system known as Nottingham Express Transit has recently been installed, running from Hucknall in the north to the railway station. Planned future lines will create a substantial tram network across the city and its suburbs.

Geography

Nottingham is located at 52°58'00" North, 01°10'00" West (52.9667, -1.1667)1.

North: Hucknall, Mansfield
West: University of Nottingham, Beeston, Stapleford, Ilkeston, Derby Nottingham East: Carlton, Grantham
South: West Bridgford

Twin Cities

External Links


Districts of England - East Midlands
Amber Valley | Ashfield | Bassetlaw | Blaby | Bolsover | Boston | Broxtowe | Charnwood | Chesterfield | Corby | Daventry | Derby | Derbyshire Dales | East Lindsey | East Northamptonshire | Erewash | Gedling | Harborough | High Peak | Hinckley and Bosworth | Kettering | Leicester | Lincoln | Mansfield | Melton | Newark and Sherwood | Northampton | North East Derbyshire | North Kesteven | North West Leicestershire | Nottingham | Oadby and Wigston | Rushcliffe | Rutland | South Derbyshire | South Holland | South Kesteven | South Northamptonshire | Wellingborough | West Lindsey

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Derbyshire - Leicestershire - Lincolnshire - Northamptonshire - Nottinghamshire