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Non-market economics
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Non-market economics

Non-market economics describes the study of the production and exchange of goods and services and distribution of scarce resources via other mechanisms than through the market, i.e. not through the exchange of goods (barter) or goods-substitutes (such as money). It would include systems of unilateral giving (such as giving gifts). It would also include bilateral giving only if one gift is not a direct exchange for the other gift.

The study of non-market economics is typically a part of economic anthropology. Among the founders of the discipline are Karl Bücher and Karl Polanyi.

In general, non-market systems are considered "primitive" (which is of course pejorative). There are, however, elements of non-market economics in very "advanced" market economies, even today.

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