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New Haven, Connecticut
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New Haven, Connecticut

This article is about the city in Connecticut. See New Haven (disambiguation) for other places of the same name.


Harkness Tower, part of the Yale University campus located in downtown New Haven

New Haven is the second-largest city in Connecticut, and is located in New Haven County, Connecticut, on New Haven Harbor, on the northern coast of Long Island Sound. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 123,626. New Haven is generally considered to be within the greater New York metropolitan area, and can be said to be culturally split between New York's influence and its own New England roots.

New Haven's nickname is the Elm City, as it historically contained many elm trees. It is home to Yale University, the institution for which the city is most known.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Historical Populations
3 Colleges and Universities
4 Transportation
5 Newspapers and Media
6 Culture and Notable Features
7 Geography
8 Urban Layout and Neighborhoods
9 Hospitals and Medicine
10 Demographics
11 External link

History

Pre-Colonial and Colonial History

Before European arrival, New Haven was the home of the Quinnipiack tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off of local fisheries and the farming of maize. The area was briefly visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in what would become New Haven.

In April 1638, five-hundred Puritans who left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of Reverend John Davenport and the London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. These settlers were hoping to establish a more perfect theological community than the one they left in Massachusetts and sought to take advantage of the excellent port capabilities of the harbor (which is actually a fjord). The Quinnipiacks, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, agreed to sell their land to the settlers in return for protection from hostile tribes.

By 1640, the town's theocratic government and city grid plan were in place, and the town was renamed Newhaven from Quinnipiac. The new settlement soon became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, which at that time was separate from the Connecticut Colony which had been established to the north focusing on Hartford. Disaster struck the colony in 1646, however, when the town sent its first fully-loaded ship of local goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Haven's development in the face of the rising trade power of Boston and New Amsterdam.

In 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two judges, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven to seek refuge from the king's forces. John Davenport arranged for these "Regicides" to hide in the West Rock hills northwest of the town. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the other regicides at a later time.

New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony in 1664, when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. At this time, New Haven was a largely agricultural town, but in 1718, Yale University relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven and established the early city as a center of learning.

During the American Revolution, New Haven was a town of approximately 3,500 citizens and was a major hotbed of revolutionary activity -- so much so that the British invaded town during the course of the war; however, the British forces did not torch New Haven as they had done with many other coastal New England towns they seized, leaving many of its colonial features preserved.

Post-colonial History

New Haven was incorporated as a city in 1784, and Roger Sherman, one of the signers of the Constitution and author of the "Connecticut Compromise", became the new city's first mayor.

The city struck fortune in the late 18th-century with the inventions and industrial activity of Eli Whitney, a Yale graduate who remained in New Haven to develop the cotton gin and also establish a gun-manufacturing factory in the northern part of the city near the Hamden border. That area of Hamden is still known as Whitneyville. It was in Whitney's gun-manufacturing plant that Samuel Colt first invented the automatic revolver in 1836.

New Haven was home to one of the important early events in the burgeoning anti-slavery movement when in 1839, the trial of the mutineering Mendi tribesmen from the slaveship Amistad was held in New Haven's United States District Court.

During the Civil War, the city received another economic boost as demand for industrial goods increased nationally. New Haven's population doubled in the time between the war and the start of the 20th century, most notably due to the influx of immigrants from southern Europe.

Modern History

New Haven's growth continued during the two world wars, however most inward immigration during those years was of African-Americans from the South and Puerto Ricans as opposed to foreigners. The city reached its peak size during World War II, and in many cases it can be argued that it was already in decline when the post-war process of suburbanization began in earnest.

As early as 1954, New Haven was already suffering from an exodus of middle-class workers and the chronic development of "slums". Then mayor Richard Lee attempted to stem the tide by engaging in one of the earliest major urban renewal projects in the United States. Large sections of downtown New Haven were destroyed and rebuilt with new office towers, a hotel, and large shopping complexes. Other parts of the city were affected by the construction of Interstate 95 along the Long Wharf section and Interstate 91. In some cases, the destruction leftover from a planned semi-beltway around and through the city remains incomplete to this day in the form of open fields in the midst of older neighborhoods.

From the 1960s through the early 1990s, New Haven continued to decline both economically and in terms of total population despite many attempts to resurrect the city through renewal projects. During this period, the city and Yale were engaged in ongoing disputes over taxation and land use.

At present, New Haven has since stabilized. The city has engaged in efforts to attract and encourage biomedical and pharmaceutical research facilities to locate in-town, and some have done so to take advantage of the city's connections with Yale. The university, and other local schools, also continue to draw in many young people from around the world. Ongoing problems persist, however, with poverty, the spread of AIDS, and decaying primary education facilities and transportation infrastructure.

Historical Populations

Colleges and Universities

New Haven is known first and foremost as a center for education and research. Yale University is one of the city's best known features and also one of the region's largest employers, and can be found in the heart of downtown. New Haven is also home to other centers of higher education, including Southern Connecticut State University and Albertus Magnus College. The University of New Haven is located interestingly enough in the neighboring city of West Haven. North of the city in Hamden is the site of Quinnipiac University. New Haven is also served by Gateway Community College, located in the Long Wharf district.

Transportation

Railroad

The city is connected to New York City by both intercity and commuter rail, provided by Amtrak and Metro-North Railroad respectively, and some New Haven residents commute to work in New York City (a trip of close to two hours). The city's main railroad station is New Haven Union Station, which serves Metro-North trains to New York, Shore Line East commuter trains to Old Saybrook, and Amtrak trains to New York, Boston, and Springfield, Massachusetts. An additional station at State Street provides SLE and a few Metro-North passengers easier access to the Central Business District.

Major Highways

New Haven lays at the intersection of Interstates 95 and 91, both of which provide easy automobile access to New York or upper New England. Within the city itself there is the Oak Street Connector/Route 34 which intersects just south of the I-95/I-91 interchange and runs northwest as a spur into downtown.

Airports

Tweed-New Haven Airport located along the New Haven/East Haven border provides daily service to 126 cities through USAirways and Delta Airlines. Jet service returned to Tweed New Haven in May, 2004 after a long absence. It is not uncommon for locals to use Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, or New York City's LaGuardia Airport or JFK International when flying overseas or to a non-Eastern destination.

Newspapers and Media

New Haven is served by the daily New Haven Register and the weekly alternative New Haven Advocate. It is also served by the student-run Yale Daily News.

Culture and Notable Features

Cuisine

Although credit for creation of the hamburger sandwich is disputed, New Haven boosters accept the claim that it was first served in the United States in 1895 by Louis Lassen, operator of Louis' Lunch, which is still in operation.

Another New Haven culinary tradition is the city's reputation for pizza. Local pizza places of distinction include Sally's Apizza and Pepe's Pizza, both located in the pizza mecca neighborhood of Wooster Square. Historically, New Haven's pizza notoriety stems from it being a long-standing center of Italian-American culture.

Popular Culture

On March 20, 1914 the first international figure skating championship was held here.

New Haven was also the location in 1967 of one of Jim Morrison's infamous arrests while he fronted the rock group The Doors. The resultant near-riotous concert and arrest was commemorated by Morrison in the lyrics to "Peace Frog" which include the missive "...blood in the streets in the town of New Haven..."

New Haven currently serves as the home city of the annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas.

Sports Teams and Athletic Entertainment

New Haven, being a significantly large urban area, served as a home city to many sports teams, all of which have since gone defunct or left town. Most notably, it was home to the New Haven Ravens, an Eastern League AA team from 1994-2003. The Ravens have since moved to Manchester, New Hampshire and became the New Hampshire Fisher Cats. The New Haven Cutters baseball team began play in 2004 in the Independent Northeast League, and call a renovated Yale Field its home park.

The New Haven Coliseum was built in 1972 to accommodate a variety of entertainment functions for greater New Haven. It has since been slated to be destroyed by the city as it claims it as a financial drain. Many groups, including the Coalition to Save Our Coliseum (www.newhavencoliseum.com), argue that if the city opens its books on the Coliseum, numbers such as 325,000 annual visitors, 2,400 needed parking spaces, and the upswing in major events booked by its first private management company, then the public will see how misleading the city of New Haven has been in its stance that the Coliseum must be demolished.

From July 1st through 9th, 1995, the city hosted the Ninth Special Olympics World Summer Games.

Theatre

The city is very active in the world of theatre, and host numerous theatres and production houses including: the Yale Repertory Theatre, the Long Wharf Theatre, and the Shubert Performing Arts Center. There is also theatre activity from the drama department at Yale which works through the Yale University Theatre and the student run Yale Cabaret. Southern Connecticut State University hosts the Lyman Center for the Performing Arts.

Museums

New Haven offers its residents and visitors a wide variety of world-class museums, many of them associated with Yale. Some of the more notable museums are the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library which features an original copy of the Gutenberg Bible, the Connecticut Children's Museum, the new Knights of Columbus museum near its world headquarters, the Peabody Museum of Natural History, the Yale Center for British Art, and the Yale University Art Gallery, which is the nation's oldest college art museum. New Haven is also the home port of a life-size replica of the historical Amistad slaveship which is open for tours at Long Wharf pier at certain times during the summer. Also at Long Wharf pier is the Quinnipiak schooner which has a regular schedule like the Amistad.

Music

The New Haven Green is the site of many free music concerts held by the city, especially during the summer months. Some of the more notable music events are the free summer shows by the New Haven Symphony Orchestra and the July series of jazz concerts.

Notable New Havenites

Notable people who were born in New Haven include:

Sister cities of New Haven

New Haven has engaged in a program of encouraging its citizens to gain a global awareness through its own version of a sister cities program, as many other cities worldwide have done. As of the present day, New Haven's sister cities are:

Some of these cities, such as Freetown, were selected as sister cities because of specific historical connections between New Haven and the paired city -- in Freetown's case because of the role of the Amistad trial. Others, such as Amalfi and Afula-Gilboa, reflect traditionally significant ethnic groups evident in New Haven.

In 1990, the city of New Haven was additionally chosen by the United Nations as a "Peace Messenger City."

Miscellaneous

In 1892, local confectioner George C. Smith invented the first lollipops.

New Haven serves as the world headquarters of the Knights of Columbus organization. The organization was founded in the city in 1882.

New Haven has been fictionalized in the movie The Skulls, which focused on conspiracy theories surrounding the real-life Skull and Bones secret society which is located in New Haven. The city was also fictionally portrayed in the movie Amistad concerning the events around the trial of that ships mutineers.

New Haven hosted the first Bell PSTN switch office.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.4 km² (20.2 mi²). 48.8 km² (18.9 mi²) of it is land and 3.6 km² (1.4 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 6.91% water.

New Haven's best-known geographic features are its large deep harbor, and two reddish sandstone "trap rocks" which rise to the northeast and northwest of the city core. These trap rocks are known respectively as East Rock and West Rock, and both serve as extensive parks. West Rock has been tunneled through to make way for the east-west passage of the Wilbur Cross Parkway, and once served as the hideout of the "Regicides". East Rock features the prominent Soldiers and Sailors war monument on its peak as well as the "Great Steps" which run up the rock's cliffside.

Urban Layout and Neighborhoods

Urban Layout

New Haven has a long tradition of urban planning and a purposeful design of the city's layout. Upon founding, New Haven was laid out in a grid pattern of nine square blocks; the central square was left open, in the tradition of many New England towns, as the city green (a commons area). To the present day, the New Haven Green remains almost unchanged from its original layout, and is home to three separate churches which speak to the original theocratic nature of the city.

In the modern era, New Haven has undergone many urban redevelopment projects to revitalize and enhance the city to mixed results. The central downtown area, for one, has been the site of numerous experiments in urban re-design, with new hotels, shopping centers, a sports coliseum, and office towers built under city, state, and federal efforts. Some of these efforts, such as the New Haven Coliseum, were never officially completed.

Neighborhoods of New Haven

The city has many distinct neighborhoods despite its relatively compact size when compared to other cities. In addition to Downtown with the central business district and the Green, there is also Long Wharf, Edgewood-West River, Westville, West Rock-Westhills, East Rock, Fair Haven, and Wooster Square. Each neighborhood exhibits its own unique mix of ethnic, economic, and social qualities.

Greater New Haven

Despite being within the New York--Northern New Jersey--Long Island, NY--NJ--CT--PA CMSA, New Haven is also contained within the more local New Haven--Meriden PMSA where it serves as the primary metropolitan focal point for most of New Haven County and for a slice of Middlesex County. The metro area of Greater New Haven encompasses approximately 600,000 residents, many of whom commute to work in New Haven, and includes the following towns:

In New Haven County
In Middlesex County
  • Clinton
Derby and Milford are sometimes also considered to be part of Greater New Haven, although both towns lie on the border with the Greater Bridgeport area. Both of these towns are located in New Haven County.

Hospitals and Medicine

The New Haven area supports several medical facilities that are considered some of the best hospitals in the country. These include Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital, and the Hospital of Saint Raphael. A large Veterans Affairs hospital is located nearby in West Haven. To the west in Milford is Milford Hospital and to the north in Meriden is the MidState Medical Center.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there are 123,626 people, 47,094 households, and 25,854 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,532.2/km² (6,558.4/mi²). There are 52,941 housing units at an average density of 1,084.4 persons/km² (2,808.5 persons/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 43.46% White, 37.36% African American, 0.43% Native American, 3.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 10.89% from other races, and 3.91% from two or more races. 21.39% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 47,094 households out of which 29.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.5% are married couples living together, 22.9% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 45.1% are non-families. 36.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.40 and the average family size is 3.19.

In the city the population is spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 16.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 29 years. For every 100 females there are 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $29,604, and the median income for a family is $35,950. Males have a median income of $33,605 versus $28,424 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,393. 24.4% of the population and 20.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 32.2% are under the age of 18 and 17.9% are 65 or older.

External link

Regions of Connecticut
New York metropolitan area
Largest Cities
Ansonia | Bridgeport | Bristol | Danbury | Darien | Groton | Hartford | Meriden | Middletown | Milford | Naugatuck | New Haven | New London | North Haven | Norwalk | Norwich | Shelton | Stamford | Torrington | Waterbury
Counties
Fairfield | Hartford | Litchfield | Middlesex | New Haven | New London | Tolland | Windham