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Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one' and physis meaning 'nature') is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. There are three major doctrines that can be called monophysite:

Monophysitism emerged in Egypt as a response to Nestorianism. It was rejected at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Later, monothelitism was developed as an attempt to bridge the gap between Monophysitism and the Chalcedonian position, but it too was rejected by the Chalcedonians, despite at times having the support of the Byzantine Emperors.

Monophysite churches are still found today, and include the Syrian Orthodox Church, sometimes referred to as Jacobite, Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (tewahido being an Ethiopian word meaning "being made one"), the newly autocephalous Eritrean Orthodox Church, and the Armenian Apostolic Church. These are considered branches of Oriental Orthodoxy.

See also : Acephali, Henotikon, the Three-Chapter Controversy