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Mongolia
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Mongolia

Alternative meaning: Mongolia (region)

Mongolia (Khalkha Mongolian: Монгол Улс) is a landlocked country in Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south. It is almost as big as Alaska, with less than 1% arable land.

Монгол Улс
Mongol Uls
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Xxxxx
Official language Mongolian
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Capital's coordinates 47 55' N, 106 53' E
President Natsagiyn Bagabandi
Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 18th
1,565,000 km²
0.6%
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density
Ranked 134th
2,712,315
1.73/km²
Independence
 - Date
from China
July 11, 1921
Currency togrog (MNT)
Time zone UTC +7, +8
National anthem Bgd Nairamdakh Mongol
Internet TLD .mn
Calling Code 976

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Aimags
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links

History

Main article: History of Mongolia

In the 13th century, Mongolia was part of the Mongol Empire. After a century of power, the Mongol Empire fell and Mongolia became two outer provinces of China, Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. The former declared its independence from China in 1921, but an independent government was not formed until 1924, when the Mongolian People's Republic was set up with Soviet support.

During World War II, the USSR defended Mongolia against Japan. The MPR was recognized by both the Republic of China and People's Republic of China following the war, but it aligned with the Soviets following the Sino-Soviet split of 1958 and housed many Soviet military bases during the Cold War. Mongolia joined the United Nations in 1961.

In 1990, the Communist Party relinquished control over the government, paving the way for a new constitution in 1992 that abolished the People's Republic and created a hybrid parliamentary/presidential state.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Mongolia

Until June 27, 2004 the predominant party in Mongolia was the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP, which was formed by Mongolia's communist leaders after the end of the Cold War. The main opposition party was the Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000. As of the 2004 elections, the MPRP was relegated to minority party status after being dealt a crushing defeat in the highest voter turnout in Mongolia's history.

The state employs a dual executive system with an elected president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. The legislature, or State Great Hural, has one chamber with 76 seats.

Aimags

Main article: Aimags of Mongolia

Geography

Main article: Geography of Mongolia

The Mongolian heartland consists of relatively flat steppes. The southern portion of the country is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous.

Most of the country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter, with temperatures dropping as low as -30°C (-22°F).

Economy

Main article: Economy of Mongolia

Mongolia's economy is centered on oil, coal, and copper, with smaller industries in molybdenum, tungsten, and phosphate mining. Following decades of state-run enterprise, the economy has undergone an often-painful transition to capitalism. There are currently over 10,000 independent businesses in Mongolia, chiefly centered around the capital city. Outside the cities, most Mongolians engage in sustenance herding.

GDP per capita is about $1,780. Although GDP has risen steadily since 2002, the state is still working to overcome a sizable trade deficit and a massive ($11 billion) foreign debt to Russia. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and now exports cashmere and food products to Russia, China, Japan, and other countries.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Mongolia

Most Mongolians are Mongol in descent: there are also smaller populations of Kazakh and Tungusic people. The predominant religion is Tibetan Buddhism. Like many developing countries, Mongolia suffers from a young and very rapidly growing population, which has put great strains on its economy.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Mongolia

See also: Music of Mongolia

Miscellaneous topics

External links


[ Edit {}] Countries in Central Asia
China | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Mongolia | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan