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Marwan I
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Marwan I

Marwan ibn Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. Marwans ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named). Hakam was a first cousin of Uthman ibn Affan.

During the reign of Uthman, Marwan took advantage of his relationship to the caliph and was appointed governor of Medina. However, he was removed from this position by Ali, only to be reappointed by Muawiya I. Marwan was eventually removed from the city when Abdullah ibn Zubayr rebelled against Yazid I. From here, Marwan went to Damascus, where he was made the caliph after Muawiyah II abdicated.

Marwan's short reign was marked by a civil war among the Umayyads as well as a war against Abdullah bin Zubayr who continued to rule over the Hejaz, Iraq, Egypt and parts of Syria. Marwan was able to win the Umayyad civil war, the result of which was a new Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. He was also able to recapture Egypt and Syria from Abdullah, but was not able to completely defeat him.

Preceded by:
Muawiya II
Umayyad Leader Succeeded by:
Abd al-Malik