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Manufacturing
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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. It is a large branch of industry and of secondary production.

Although handicraft production has been with us for many millennia, modern-style manufacturing is generally regarded as beginning around 1780 with the British Industrial Revolution, spreading thereafter to Continental Europe and North America, and subsequently around the world.

While it remains a huge part of the modern world economy - perhaps a quarter of aggregate world production of goods and services - many of the world's wealthier nations devote an ever smaller proportion of their workforce to manufacturing activity owing to relocation of enterprises to lower-wage countries and the rising proportion of economic activity devoted to service activity.

Table of contents
1 Manufacturing Topics

Manufacturing Topics

Taxonomy of manufacturing processes

  1. Casting and molding
    1. Casting
      1. Sand
      2. Plastic mold
      3. Shell mold
      4. Investment (lost wax, precision)
      5. Permanent mold
      6. Centrifugal
      7. Die
      8. Slush or slurry
      9. Full mold
      10. Low pressure
      11. Continuous Molding
    2. Molding
      1. Powder metallurgy
        1. Compaction plus sintering
      2. Plastics
        1. Injection
        2. Compression
        3. Transfer
        4. Extrusion
        5. Blow
        6. Rotational
        7. Thermoforming
        8. Laminating
        9. Expandable bead
        10. Foam
        11. Rotomolding
        12. Vacuum plug assist
        13. Pressure plug assist
        14. Matched mold
  2. Deformation (forming and shearing)
    1. Forming
      1. Forging
        1. Smith
        2. Hammer
        3. Drop
        4. Press
        5. Impact (see also extrusion)
        6. Upset
        7. No draft
        8. High-energy-rate
        9. Cored
        10. Incremental
        11. Powder
      2. Rolling
        1. Shape
        2. Ring
        3. Transverse
        4. Orbital
        5. Cross-rolling
        6. Thread
      3. Stretching (expanding)
      4. Drawing (shrinking) of wire bar or tube
        1. Embossing
        2. Coining
        3. Stamping
        4. Sizing
        5. Redrawing
        6. Bulging
        7. Necking
        8. Nosing
        9. Ironing
      5. Deep drawing
      6. Swaging
      7. Extrusion
      8. Spinning
      9. Bending
      10. Miscellaneous other
        1. Peening
        2. Guerin process
        3. Wheelon process
        4. Magnetic pulse
        5. Explosive
        6. Electroforming
        7. Staking
        8. Seaming
        9. Flanging
        10. Straightening
    2. Shearing
      1. Line shearing (slitting)
      2. Blanking
      3. Piercing or punching
      4. Follow-up on #2 and #3
        1. Trimming
        2. Shaving
        3. Notching
        4. Perforating
        5. Nibling
        6. Dinking
        7. Lancing
        8. Cutoff
    3. Pulverizing
      1. Crushing
        1. Jaw crusher
        2. Gyratory crusher
        3. Rollers
        4. Edge runner
        5. Hammer mill
      2. Grinding
        1. Ball mill
        2. Buhrstone mill
      3. Atomization
      4. Centrifugal disintegration
  3. Machining (material removal)
    1. Milling
      1. Peripheral (slab)
      2. Face
      3. Chemical
    2. Turning
      1. Facing
      2. Boring
      3. Spinning (flow turning)
      4. Knurling
      5. Cutoff (parting)
    3. Drilling
      1. Reaming
      2. Countersinking
      3. Tapping
    4. Sawing
      1. Filing
    5. Broaching
    6. Shaping
      1. Horizontal
      2. Vertical
      3. Special purpose
    7. Planing
      1. Double housing
      2. Open-side
      3. Edge or plate
      4. Pit-type
    8. Grinding (abrasive machining)
      1. Abrasive jet machining
      2. Honing
      3. Lapping
      4. Superfinishing
      5. Barrel finishing
      6. Vibratory finishing
      7. Spindle finishing
      8. Abrasive belt
      9. Polishing
      10. Buffing
      11. Burnishing
      12. Grit- or shot-blasting
      13. Tumbling
      14. Wire brushing
      15. Electropolishing
      16. Electro-chemical grinding
    9. Routing
    10. Hobbing (hubbing)
    11. Ultrasonic
    12. Electrical discharge
    13. Electron beam
    14. Electrochemical
    15. Chemical
    16. Photochemical
    17. Laser beam
  4. Joining
    1. Welding
      1. Arc
        1. Manual metal
        2. Shielded metal
        3. Gas metal
          1. Pulsed
          2. Short circuit
          3. Electrogas
          4. Spray transfer
        4. Gas tungsten
        5. Flux-cored
        6. Submerged
        7. Plasma arc
        8. Carbon arc
        9. Stud
        10. Electroslag
        11. Atomic hydrogen
        12. Plasma-MIG (metal inert gas)
        13. Impregnated tape
      2. Oxyfuel gas
        1. Oxyacetylene gas
        2. Methylacetylene propadiene (MAPP)
        3. Air-acetylene
        4. Oxyhydrogen
        5. Pressure gas
          1. CO2
      3. Resistance
        1. Spot
        2. Projection
        3. Seam
        4. Flash butt (flash)
        5. Upset(butt)
        6. Percussion
      4. Solid state
        1. Ultrasonic
        2. Explosive
        3. Diffusion
          1. Hot press
          2. Isostatic hot gas
          3. Vacuum furnace
        4. Friction
        5. Inertia
        6. Forge
        7. Cold
        8. Roll
      5. Electron beam
      6. Laser beam
        1. Solid-state
        2. Axial-flow gas
        3. Cross-flow gas
      7. Thermite
      8. Induction
        1. Low frequency (50-450 Hz)
        2. High frequency (induction resistance; 200-450 kHz)
      9. High frequency resistance
      10. Electromagnetic
      11. Flow
    2. Brazing
      1. Torch
      2. Induction
      3. Furnace
      4. Dip
      5. Resistance
      6. Infrared
      7. Vacuum
    3. Soldering
      1. Iron
      2. Resistance
      3. Hot plate
      4. Oven
      5. Induction
      6. Dip
      7. Wave
      8. Ultrasonic
    4. Sintering (of powdered metals)
    5. Adhesive bonding (incomplete)
      1. Thermo-setting and thermoplastic
        1. Epoxy
        2. Modified epoxy
        3. Phenolics
        4. Polyurethane
      2. Adhesive alloys
      3. Miscellaneous other powders, liquids, solids, and tapes
    6. Metal fasteners
      1. Screws
      2. Nuts and bolts
      3. Rivets
      4. Pins
        1. Cotter
        2. Groove
        3. Tapered
        4. Roll
      5. Retaining rings
      6. Quick-release
    7. Stitching
    8. Stapling
    9. Shrink fitting
    10. Press fitting
    11. Plastic
      1. Hot-air-welding
      2. Friction
      3. Heated metal plate
      4. Solvent
      5. Dielectric
      6. Magnetics
      7. Ultrasonic
      8. Radio frequency welding

Manufacturing Systems

Theories

Control

Manufacturing Engineering

Assembly Systems

Design

Others

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