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Lyon
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Lyon

This article is about the French city. For other usages (as Lyons), see Lyons (disambiguation).

RegionRhône-Alpes
DépartementRhône
Arrondissement43 cantons
162 communes
1 406 043 inhabitants
Cantonsadministrative centre of 14 cantons
(1 commune, 445 452 inhabitants)
Population (1999)453 187
Metropolitan area population (1999)
(in French: aire urbaine)
1 648 216
Area48 km²

Lyon (English Lyons) is a city in eastern central France.

Together with neighboring towns, Lyon forms the second largest conurbation in France after Paris. It is also the administrative centre for the Rhône-Alpes region and the Rhône département;.

The city gives its name to the Lyonnais region. Two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near Lyon: the Beaujolais to the North, and the Côtes du Rhône to the South.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Geography
3 Colleges and Universities
4 Transportation
5 Culture
6 Religion
7 Twinning
8 External links

History

Lyon was founded in 43 BC by the Roman Empire, who named it Lugdunum after the Celtic sun god Lugh ("shining one"). Agrippa recognized that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from north to south-eastern France made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyons the starting-point of the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul. The three parts of Gaul mentioned by Caesar met at Lyon. It became then the capital of the Gauls.

Under Roman Emperor Septimius Severus, the Christians in Lyon were prosecuted for their religious views. Burgundian refugees from the destruction of Worms by Huns in 437 were resettled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius, at Lugdunum, which was formally the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom by 461.

In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon with the country beyond the Saône went to Lothair I.

Lyon was a scene of mass violence against Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacres in 1572.

During the Renaissance the city developed due to the development of the silk trade, especially with Italy; the Italian influence on Lyon's architecture can still be seen. Thanks to the silk trade, Lyon became an important industrial town during the nineteenth century.

Lyon was a centre for the occupying German forces, and also a stronghold of resistance during World War II, and the town is now home to a resistance museum. The traboules through the houses enabled the locals to escape Gestapo raids.


- Central Lyon from the Fourvière hill -

Geography

Lyon is located at 45°46' North, 4°50' East (45.767, 4.833).

The Rhône; and Saône rivers meet in the centre of the city, which is dominated by the two hills Fourvière and the Croix-Rousse. Fourvière, known as the hill that prays is the location for the highly decorated Notre-Dame de Fourvière basilica, several convents, the palace of the Archbishop, and a funicular. Croix-Rousse the hill that works was traditionally home to the many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city was renowned.

The Sain-Jean and the Croix-Rousse areas, which are noted for narrow passageways (traboules) that pass through buildings and link the streets either side, were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998.

On the peninsula between the rivers Rhône and Saône, is the third largest public square in France, and one of the largest in Europe, the place Bellecour. Specifically, it is the largest clear square (i.e., without any patches of greenery, trees or any other kind of obstacles) in Europe.

Colleges and Universities

Transportation

Airport: Saint-Exupéry International Airport

Lyon was the first city to be connected to Paris by the TGV c.1982.

Metro: see www.urbanrail.net/eu/lyo/lyon.htm

Culture

Lyon was an early center for printing books, and nurtured a circle of 16th century poets. For several centuries Lyon has been known as the capitals of gastronomy and the silk trade. The Lumière brothers invented cinema in the town in 1898. December 8 each year is marked by a Lumière festival, with the local population putting lamps in their windows.

Born in Lyon

Lyon being France's second city, a list of all the notable Lyonnais would be a long one. It would probably include Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, painter; Henri Cochet, tennis great, Jules Favre, republican statesman; Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, aviation pioneer and writer; Marie-France Gaîté (la Gribouille), singer, Maurice Jarre, composer, and Bishop Mathias Loras - the first Bishop of the Dubuque, Iowa Diocese. Additional names can be found at "What links here"''

Religion

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of the city holds the title "Primate of the Gauls" (Primat des Gaules) and is the leading Archbishop of France. The archdiocese dates to Roman times before Franks entered modern France (see history above).

A mediaeval Pope's admiration of the red vestments of the canons of Lyon is said to have given rise to red becoming the signature color of the cardinals.

Twinning

Lyon is twinned with :

 

External links