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List of national leaders
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List of national leaders

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. Some states have semi-presidential systems where the head of government role is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state.

Country Head of state Head of government
Afghanistan Hamid Karzai
Albania Alfred Moisiu Fatos Nano
Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika Ahmed Ouyahia
Andorra Joan Enric Vives Sicília (represented by Nemesi Marqués Oste)
and Jacques Chirac (represented by Philippe Massoni)
Marc Forné Molné
Angola José Eduardo dos Santos Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos
Antigua and Barbuda Elizabeth II, represented by Sir James Carlisle Baldwin Spencer
Argentina Néstor Kirchner
Armenia Robert Kocharyan Andranik Markaryan
Australia Elizabeth II, represented by Michael Jeffery John Howard
Austria Heinz Fischer Wolfgang Schüssel
Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev Artur Rasizade
Bahamas Elizabeth II, represented by Dame Ivy Dumont Perry Christie
Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah
Bangladesh Iajuddin Ahmed Khaleda Zia
Barbados Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Clifford Husbands Owen Arthur
Belarus Alexander Lukashenko Sergey Sidorsky
Belgium Albert II Guy Verhofstadt
Belize Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Colville Young Said Musa
Benin Mathieu Kérékou
Bhutan Jigme Singye Wangchuck Lyonpo Jigme Thinley
Bolivia Carlos Mesa
Bosnia and Herzegovina Sulejman Tihić (President of the Presidency), Borislav Paravac, Dragan Čović Adnan Terzić
Botswana Festus Mogae
Brazil Luís Inácio Lula da Silva
Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah
Bulgaria Georgi Purvanov Simeon Sakskoburggotski
Burkina Faso Blaise Compaoré Ernest Paramanga Yonli
Burundi Domitien Ndayizeye
Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk Hun Sen
Cameroon Paul Biya Peter Mafany Musonge
Canada Elizabeth II, represented by Adrienne Clarkson Paul Martin
Cape Verde Pedro Pires José Maria Neves
Central African Republic François Bozizé Célestin Gaombalet
Chad Idriss Déby Moussa Faki
Chile Ricardo Lagos
China (PRC) Hu Jintao Wen Jiabao
Colombia Álvaro Uribe
Comoros Azali Assoumani
Congo (Brazzaville) Denis Sassou-Nguesso
Congo (Kinshasa) Joseph Kabila
Costa Rica Abel Pacheco
Côte d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo Seydou Diarra
Croatia Stjepan Mesic Ivo Sanader
Cuba Fidel Castro
Cyprus Tassos Papadopoulos
Czech Republic Václav Klaus Stanislav Gross
Denmark Margrethe II Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Djibouti Ismael Omar Guelleh Dileita Mohamed Dileita
Dominica Nicholas Liverpool Roosevelt Skerrit
Dominican Republic Hipólito Mejía
East Timor Xanana Gusmão Marí Alkatiri
Ecuador Lucio Gutiérrez
Egypt Hosni Mubarak Ahmed Nazif
El Salvador Antonio Saca
Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Miguel Abia Biteo Borico
Eritrea Isaias Afewerki
Estonia Arnold Rüütel Juhan Parts
Ethiopia Girma Wolde-Giorgis Meles Zenawi
Fiji Josefa Iloilo Laisenia Qarase
Finland Tarja Halonen Matti Vanhanen
France Jacques Chirac Jean-Pierre Raffarin
Gabon Omar Bongo Jean-François Ntoutoume Emane
Gambia Yahya Jammeh
Georgia Mikhail Saakashvili Zurab Zhvania
Germany Horst Köhler Gerhard Schröder
Ghana John Kufuor
Greece Costis Stephanopoulos Costas Caramanlis
Grenada Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Daniel Williams Keith Mitchell
Guatemala Óscar Berger
Guinea Lansana Conté
Guinea-Bissau Henrique Rosa Carlos Gomes Júnior
Guyana Bharrat Jagdeo Sam Hinds
Haiti Boniface Alexandre Gérard Latortue
Honduras Ricardo Maduro
Hungary Ferenc Mádl Péter Medgyessy
Iceland Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson Davíð Oddsson
India A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Manmohan Singh
Indonesia Megawati Sukarnoputri
Iran Ali Khamenei (Rahbar - "leader"); Mohammad Khatami (president)
Iraq Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer Iyad Allawi
Ireland Mary McAleese Bertie Ahern
Israel Moshe Katsav Ariel Sharon
Italy Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Silvio Berlusconi
Jamaica Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Howard Cooke Percival Patterson
Japan Akihito Junichiro Koizumi
Jordan Abdullah II Faisal al-Fayez
Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev Daniyal Akhmetov
Kenya Mwai Kibaki
Kiribati Anote Tong
Korea (DPRK) Kim Yong Nam ("Head of State for Foreign Affairs");
Kim Jong Il (highest administrative authority)
Pak Pong Ju
Korea (ROK) Roh Moo Hyun Lee Hai Chan
Kuwait Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah
Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev Nikolai Tanayev
Laos Khamtai Siphandon Boungnang Vorachith
Latvia Vaira Vike-Freiberga Indulis Emsis
Lebanon Émile Lahoud Rafiq Hariri
Lesotho Letsie III Pakalitha Mosisili
Liberia Gyude Bryant
Libya Mu'ammar Al Qathafi (de facto);
Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani (de jure)
Shukri Ghanem
Liechtenstein Hans-Adam II Otmar Hasler
Lithuania Valdas Adamkus Algirdas Brazauskas
Luxembourg Henri Jean-Claude Juncker
Republic of Macedonia Branko Crvenkovski Hari Kostov
Madagascar Marc Ravalomanana Jacques Sylla
Malawi Bingu wa Mutharika
Malaysia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Maldives Maumoon Abdul Gayoom
Mali Amadou Toumani Touré Ousmane Issoufi Maïga
Malta Eddie Fenech Adami Lawrence Gonzi
Marshall Islands Kessai Note
Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya Sghair Ould M'bareck
Mauritius Anerood Jugnauth Paul Bérenger
Mexico Vicente Fox
Micronesia Joseph Urusemal
Moldova Vladimir Voronin Vasile Tarlev
Monaco Rainier III Patrick Leclercq
Mongolia Natsagiyn Bagabandi Nambaryn Enhbayar
Morocco Mohammed VI Driss Jettou
Mozambique Joaquim Chissano Luisa Diogo
Myanmar Than Shwe Khin Nyunt
Namibia Sam Nujoma Theo-Ben Gurirab
Nauru Ludwig Scotty
Nepal Gyanendra Sher Bahadur Deuba
Netherlands Beatrix Jan Peter Balkenende
New Zealand Elizabeth II, represented by Dame Silvia Cartwright Helen Clark
Nicaragua Enrique Bolaños
Niger Tandja Mamadou Hama Amadou
Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo
Norway Harald V Kjell Magne Bondevik
Oman Qaboos ibn Sa'id Al Sa'id
Pakistan Pervez Musharraf Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
Palau Tommy Remengesau
Panama Mireya Moscoso
Papua New Guinea Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Paulias Matane Sir Michael Somare
Paraguay Nicanor Duarte
Peru Alejandro Toledo Carlos Ferrero
Philippines Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski; Marek Belka
Portugal Jorge Sampaio Pedro Santana Lopes
Qatar Hamad ibn Khalifah Al Thani Abdallah ibn Khalifah Al Thani
Romania Ion Iliescu Adrian Nastase
Russia Vladimir Putin Mikhail Fradkov
Rwanda Paul Kagame Bernard Makuza
St. Kitts and Nevis Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Cuthbert Sebastian Denzil Douglas
St. Lucia Elizabeth II, represented by Dame Pearlette Louisy Kenny Anthony
St. Vincent and the Grenadines Elizabeth II, represented by Sir Frederick Ballantyne Ralph Gonsalves
Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II Tuila'epa Sailele Malielegaoi
San Marino Paolo Bollini and Marino Riccardi
São Tomé and Príncipe Fradique de Menezes Maria das Neves
Saudi Arabia Fahd Fahd (de jure), Abdullah (de facto)
Senegal Abdoulaye Wade Macky Sall
Serbia and Montenegro Svetozar Marović
Seychelles James Michel
Sierra Leone Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
Singapore S.R. Nathan Goh Chok Tong
Slovakia Ivan Gašparovič Mikuláš Dzurinda;
Slovenia Janez Drnovšek; Anton Rop
Solomon Islands Elizabeth II, represented by Nathaniel Waena Allan Kemakeza
Somalia Abdulkassim Salat Hassan (de jure) Muhammad Abdi Yusuf (de jure)
South Africa Thabo Mbeki
Spain Juan Carlos I José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
Sri Lanka Chandrika Kumaratunga Mahinda Rajapakse
Sudan Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir
Suriname Ronald Venetiaan Jules Ajodhia
Swaziland Mswati III Themba Dlamini
Sweden Carl XVI Gustav Göran Persson
Switzerland Moritz Leuenberger, Pascal Couchepin, Joseph Deiss (President), Samuel Schmid, Micheline Calmy-Rey, Christoph Blocher, Hans-Rudolf Merz
Syria Bashar al-Assad Mohammed Naji al-Otari
Taiwan (ROC) Chen Shui-bian Yu Shyi-kun
Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov Okil Okilov
Tanzania Benjamin Mkapa Frederick Sumaye
Thailand Bhumibol Adulyadej Thaksin Shinawatra
Togo Gnassingbé Eyadéma Koffi Sama
Tonga Taufa'ahau Tupou IV 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata
Trinidad and Tobago Maxwell Richards Patrick Manning
Tunisia Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Mohamed Ghannouchi
Turkey Ahmet Necdet Sezer Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov
Tuvalu Elizabeth II, represented by Faimalaga Luka Saufatu Sopoanga
Uganda Yoweri Museveni Apolo Nsibambi
Ukraine Leonid Kuchma Viktor Yanukovych
United Arab Emirates Zayed ibn Sultan Al Nahayan Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
United Kingdom Elizabeth II Tony Blair
United States George W. Bush
Uruguay Jorge Batlle
Uzbekistan Islam Karimov Shavkat Mirziyayev
Vanuatu Josias Moli Serge Vohor
Vatican City John Paul II Angelo Cardinal Sodano
Venezuela Hugo Chávez
Vietnam Tran Duc Luong Phan Van Khai
Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh Abdul Qadir Bajamal
Zambia Levy Mwanawasa
Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe

See also