Encyclopedia  |   World Factbook  |   World Flags  |   Reference Tables  |   List of Lists     
   Academic Disciplines  |   Historical Timeline  |   Themed Timelines  |   Biographies  |   How-Tos     
Sponsor by The Tattoo Collection
List of national languages of India
Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index

List of national languages of India

India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. At least 30 different languages and around 2000 dialects have been identified. The Constitution of India has stipulated the usage of Hindi and English to be the two languages of official communication for the national government. Additionally, it classifies a set of 18 scheduled languages which are languages that can be officially adopted by different states for administrative purposes, and also as a medium of communication between the national and the state governments, as also for examinations conducted for national government service.

As drafted, English ceased to exist as an official language (on par with Hindi) in 1965, after which it was intended to continue as an "associate additional official language" until such time that a duly appointed committee can decide on a full-scale transition to Hindi, based on a periodic review. However, due to resentment and protests in certain non-Hindi speaking states, the "twin language" system is still in vogue. Due to rapid industrialization, and a bustling multinational influence in the economy, English continues to be a popular and influential means of communication in the government and day-to-day business, and moves to replace it have effectively been shelved.

Table of contents
1 National languages (Central administrative)
2 Recognized national languages of India (Scheduled list for official use)
3 Other popular languages of India
4 External links

National languages (Central administrative)

  1. Hindi
  2. English (associate official)

Recognized national languages of India (Scheduled list for official use)

  1. Assamese (official language of Assam)
  2. Bengali (official language of Tripura and West Bengal)
  3. Bodo (official language of Assam)
  4. Dogri (official language of Jammu and Kashmir)
  5. Gujarati (official language of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Gujarat)
  6. Hindi (official language of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal)
  7. Kannada (official language of Karnataka)
  8. Kashmiri
  9. Konkani (official language of Goa)
  10. Maithili (official language of Bihar)
  11. Malayalam (official language of Kerala and Lakshadweep)
  12. Manipuri (official language of Manipur)
  13. Marathi (official language of Maharashtra)
  14. Nepali (official language of Sikkim)
  15. Oriya (official language of Orissa)
  16. Punjabi (official language of Punjab)
  17. Sanskrit
  18. Santali
  19. Sindhi
  20. Tamil (official language of Pondicherry and Tamil Nadu)
  21. Telugu (official language of Andhra Pradesh)
  22. Urdu (official language of Jammu and Kashmir)

Other popular languages of India

(over 5 million speakers but no official status)
  1. Awadhi
  2. Bhojpuri (language of Bihar)
  3. Bundeli
  4. Chhattisgarhi (language of Chhattisgarh)
  5. Haryanvi (language of Haryana)
  6. Kanauji (language of Uttar Pradesh)
  7. Magahi (language of southern Bihar)
  8. Marwari (language of Rajasthan)

External links