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List of monarchs of Northumbria
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List of monarchs of Northumbria

Northumbria, an kingdom of Angles in northern England, was initially divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. The two were first united by Aethelfrith around the year 604, and except for occasional periods of division over the subsequent century, they remained so.

The exceptions are during the brief period from 633 to 634, when Northumbria was plunged into chaos by the death of King Edwin in battle and the ruinous invasion of Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd. The unity of the Northumbrian kingdoms was restored after Cadwallon's death in battle in 634.

Another exception is a period from about the year 644 to 664, when kings ruled individually over Deira. In 651, King Oswiu had Oswine of Deira killed and replaced by Aethelwald, but Aethelwald did not prove to be a loyal sub-king, allying with the Mercian king Penda; according to Bede, Aethelwald acted as Penda's guide during the latter's invasion of Northumbria but withdrew his forces when the Mercians met the Northumbrians at the Battle of Winwaed. After the Mercian defeat at Winwaed, Aethelwald lost power and Oswiu's own son, Alchfrith, became king in his place. In 670, Aelfwine, the brother of the childless King Ecgfrith, was made king of Deira; by this point the title may have been used primarily to designate an heir. Aelfwine was killed in battle against Mercia in 679, and there was not another separate king of Deira until the time of Norse rule.

Following are lists of the kings of Bernicia, Deira, and Northumbria. Note that many of their dates, particularly in the earlier period, are considered unreliable.

This was a time when spellings varied widely, even within a document. A number of variations of the details below exist. Amongst these are the preference between ş and ğ (hard and soft 'th').

The character '7' was used as represent ampersand '&' in contemporary Anglo-Saxon writings.

Table of contents
1 Kings of Bernicia
2 Kings of Deira
3 Kings of Northumbria
4 Sub-Kings under Norse Kingdom of York
5 Deira under Norse York Control from 878

Kings of Bernicia

Reign Incumbent Notes
fl.500 Esa
(Oesa)
Esa Inguing Cyning
Esa Rex Bernicia
fl.c.520 Eoppa Eoppa Esing Bernicia Cyning
Eoppa Rex Bernicia
547 to 559 Ida '\Ida Eopping Cyning Bernicia
Ida Rex
' Bernicia
559 to 560 Glappa
(Clappa)
Glappa Bernicia Cyning
Glappa Rex Bernicia
560 to 568 Adda Adda Iding Bernicia Cyning
Adda Rex Bernicia
568 to 572 Aethelric Æşelric Iding Bernicia Cyning
Æşelric Rex Bernicia
572 to 579 Theodric
(Deoric)
Şeodric Iding Bernicia Cyning
Şeodric Rex Bernicia
579 to 585 Frithuwald
(Frithewlf)
Frişuvvald Bernicia Cyning
Frişuvvald Rex Bernicia
585 to 593 Hussa Hussa Bernicia Cyning
Hussa Rex Bernicia
ante?588 to 604 Aethelric
(Aedilric)
(Eathilric)
Æşelric Iding Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Æşelric Rex Bernicia et Deira
Bernicia Dynasty
593/604? to 616 Aethelfrith Æşelfriş Æşelricing Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Æşelfriş Rex Bernicia et Deira
Killed in battle
Deira Dynasty
616 to 12/14 October 632 Edwin Edvvin Ælling Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Edvvin Rex Bernicia et Deira
Killed in battle by Penda, King of Mercia;
Bernicia Dynasty
late632 to 633 Eanfrith Eanfriş Æşelfrişing Bernicia Cyning
Eanfriş Rex Bernicia
634 to 5 August 641 Oswald Osvvald Æşelfrişing Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Osvvald Rex Bernicia et Deira
Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
late641 to 654 Oswiu Osvvio Æşelfrişing Bernicia Cyning
Osvvio Rex Bernicia
Became King of united Northumbria

Kings of Deira

>
Reign Incumbent Notes
559/560 to 589 Aella
(Aelli)
Ælla Yffing Deira Cyning
Ælla Rex Deira
'Bernician Dynasty\'
589 to 604 Aethelric
(Aedilric)
Æşelric Iding Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Æşelric Rex Bernicia et Deira
593/604? to 616 Aethelfrith Æşelferş Æşelricing Deira Cyning
Æşelferş Rex Deira
Killed in battle
Deira Dynasty
616 to 12/14 October 632 Edwin Edvvin Ælling Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Edvvin Rex Bernicia et Deira
Killed in battle by Penda, King of Mercia;
late633 to summer 634 Osric Osric Ælfricing Deira Cyning
Osric Rex Deira
633 to 5 August 642 Oswald Osvvald Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Osvvald Rex Bernicia et Deira
Killed by Penda, King of Mercia; Saint Oswald
642 to 644 Oswiu Osvvio Æşelfrişing Bernicia 7 Deira Cyning
Osvvio Rex Bernicia et Deira
644 to 651 Oswine Osvvine Osricing Deira Cyning
Osvvine Rex Deira
Murdered
summer 651 to late654 or 655 Aethelwald Æşelvvald Osvvalding Deira Cyning
Æşelvvald Rex Deira
654 to 15 August 670 Oswiu Osvvio Æşelferşing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osvvio Rex Norşanhymbra
Restored
656 to 664 Alchfrith Alchfriş Deira Cyning
Alchfriş Rex Deira
670 to 679 Aelfwine Ælfvvine Deira Cyning
Ælfvvine Rex Deira

Kings of Northumbria

>

Reign Incumbent Notes
654 to 15 February 670 Oswiu Osvvio Æşelfrişing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osvvio Rex Norşanhymbra
Hitherto king of Bernicia and Deira
February 670 to 20 May 685 Ecgfrith Ecgferş Osvveoing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ecgferş Rex Norşanhymbra
Killed in battle against the Picts
May 685 to 14 December 704 Aldfrith
Ealdfrith
Aldferş Osvveoing Norşanhymbra Cyning
'\Aldferş Rex' Norşanhymbra
late704 to early705 Eadwulf Eadvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Eadvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
705 to 716 Osred I Osred Aldferşing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osred Rex Norşanhymbra
716 to 718 Coenred Coenred Norşanhymbra Cyning
Coenred Rex Norşanhymbra
718 to 29 May 729 Osric Osric Aldferşing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osric Rex Norşanhymbra
Killed
729 to 731 737 Ceolwulf (St.) Ceolvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ceolvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed
731 to 737/8 Ceolwulf (St.) Ceolvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ceolvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Restored; abdicated to become a monk
737 to 758 Eadberht Eadbryht Eating Norşanhymbra Cyning
Eadbryht Rex Norşanhymbra
758 to 759 Oswulf
(Osulf)
Osvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Murdered by his servants
759 to 765 Aethelwald Moll Æşelwald Moll Norşanhymbra Cyning
Æşelwald Moll Rex Norşanhymbra
765 to 774 Ealchred Ealchred Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ealchred Rex Norşanhymbra
774 to 779 Aethelred I Æşelred Norşanhymbra Cyning
Æşelred Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed
779 to 23 September 788 Aelfwald I Ælfvvald Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ælfvvald Rex Norşanhymbra
Murdered
788 to 790 Osred II Osred Alchreding Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osred Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed and exiled
790 to 18 April 796 Aethelred I Æşelred Norşanhymbra Cyning
Æşelred Rex Norşanhymbra
Restored
796 to 796 Osbald '\Osbald Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osbald Rex
' Norşanhymbra
Exiled after a reign of 27 days
14 May 796 to 806/8 Eardwulf Eardvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Eardvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed
806/8 to 808/10 Aelfwald II
(Elfwald II)
Ælfvvald Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ælfvvald Rex Norşanhymbra
808 to 810 Eardwulf Eardvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Eardvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Restored
810 to 841 Eanred Eanred Eardvvulfing Norşanhymbra Cyning
Eanred Rex Norşanhymbra
840/1 to 844 Aethelred II Æşelred Eanreding Norşanhymbra Cyning
Æşelred Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed
844 to 844 Raedwulf
(Redwulf)
Raedvvulf Norşanhymbra Cyning
Raedvvulf Rex Norşanhymbra
Usurper
844 to c.848/9 Aethelred II Æşelred Eanreding Norşanhymbra Cyning
Æşelred Rex Norşanhymbra
Restored
c.848/9 to 862/3 Osbeorht
(Osbert)
Osbeorht Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osbeorht Rex Norşanhymbra
Deposed
862/3/7 to 23 March 867 Aelle II Aelle Norşanhymbra Cyning
Aelle Rex Norşanhymbra
Usurper; Killed by the Danes with Osbeorht
867 to 21 March 867 Osbeorht
(Osbert)
Osbeorht Norşanhymbra Cyning
Osbeorht Rex Norşanhymbra
Killed by the Danes with the usurper Aelle

Sub-Kings under Norse Kingdom of York

>
Reign Incumbent Notes
867 to 872 Ecgberht I Ecgbryht Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ecgbryht Rex Norşanhymbra
Puppet king of the Danes
872 to 876 Ricsige Ricsige Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ricsige Rex Norşanhymbra
876 to c.878 Ecgberht II Ecgbryht Norşanhymbra Cyning
Ecgberht Rex Norşanhymbra
c.878 ''Northumbria subsumed into the Norse kingdom of York

Deira under Norse York Control from 878

>
Reign Incumbent Notes
? to 913 Eadulf Eadulf
913 to 930 Ealdred I Ealdred
930 to 963 Osulf Osulf
963 to 970 Waltheof Walşeof
995 to 1016 Uchtred the Bold Uchtred
1016 to 1019 Eadulf I Eadulf
1019 to 1038 Ealdred II Ealdred
1038 to 1041 Eadulf II Eadulf


Heptarchy
East Anglia | Essex | Kent | Mercia | Northumbria | Sussex | Wessex
Others: Lindsey, Hwicce