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List of laser types
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List of laser types

The following is a list of laser types, their operational wavelengths, and their applications. Many thousands of different kinds of laser are known, although most of these are not used beyond specialised research.

This list is incomplete. You can help Wikipedia by adding to it.

Laser gain medium and type Operation wavelength(s) Pump source Applications and notes
Helium-neon (HeNe) gas laser 632.8 nm (543.5 nm, 594 nm, 612 nm, 1.423 μm) Electrical discharge Interferometry, holography, spectroscopy, barcode scanning, alignment, optical demonstrations.
Argon ion gas laser 488.0 nm, 514.5 nm, (351 nm, 465.8 nm, 472.7 nm, 528.7 nm) Electrical discharge Retinal phototherapy (for diabetes), lithography, pumping other lasers.
Carbon dioxide gas laser 10.6 μm, (9.4 μm) Transverse electrical discharge Material processing (cutting, welding, etc.), surgery.
Excimer chemical lasers 193 nm (ArF), 248 nm (KrF), 308 nm (XeCl), 353 nm (XeF) Excimer recombination via electrical discharge Ultraviolet lithography for semiconductor manufacturing, laser surgery, LASIK.
Dye lasers 390-435 nm (Stilbene), 460-515 nm (Coumarin 102), 570-640 nm (Rhodamine 6G), many others Other laser, flashlamp Research, spectroscopy, birthmark removal, isotope separation. The tuning range of the laser depends on the exact dye used.
Ruby solid-state laser 694.3 nm Flashlamp Holography, tattoo removal. The first type of laser invented, in 1960.
Neodymium YAG (Nd:YAG) solid-state laser 1.064 μm, (1.32 μm) Flashlamp, laser diode Material processing, rangefinding, laser target designation, surgery, research, pumping other lasers (in combination with frequency doubling). One of the most common high power lasers. Usually pulsed (down to fractions of a nanosecond)
Neodymium YLF (Nd:YLF) solid-state laser 1.054 μm Flashlamp, laser diode Mostly used for pulsed pumping of certain types of pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers, in combination with frequency doubling.
Neodymium YVO4 (Nd:YVO) solid-state laser 1.064 μm laser diode Mostly used for continuous pumping of mode-locked Ti:sapphire lasers, in combination with frequency doubling.
Neodymium Glass (Nd:Glass) solid-state laser ~1.062 μm (Silicate glasses), ~1.054 μm (Phosphate glasses) Flashlamp, laser diode Used in extremely high power (Terawatt scale), high energy (Megajoules) multiple beam systems for inertial confinement fusion. Nd:Glass lasers are usually frequency tripled to the third harmonic at 351 nm in laser fusion devices.
Titanium sapphire (Ti:sapphire) solid-state laser 660-1100 nm Other laser Spectroscopy, LIDAR, research. This material is often used in highly-tunable mode-locked infrared lasers to produce ultra-short pulses and in amplifier lasers to produce ultra-short and ultra-intense pulses.
Thulium YAG (Tm:YAG) solid-state laser 2.0 μm Laser diode Laser radar.
Holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) solid-state laser 2.1 μm Laser diode Tissue ablation, kidney stone removal, dentistry.
Erbium doped fibre laser 1.53-1.56 μm Laser diode Optical amplifier for telecommunications over optical fibre.
Semiconductor laser diode wavelength depends on device material: 0.4 μm (GaN) or 0.63-1.55 μm (AlGaAs) or 3-20 μm (lead salt) Electrical current Telecommunications, holography, laser pointers, printing, pump sources for other lasers. The 780 nm AlGaAs laser diode, used in compact disc players, is the most common type of laser in the world.
Free electron laser there exist free electron lasers over a broad wavelength range (about 100 nm - several mm); a single free electron laser may be tunable over a certain wavelength range relativistic electron beam atmospheric research, material science, medical applications, missile defense

See also: laser construction.