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List of countries by date of nationhood
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List of countries by date of nationhood

Below is a list of nations in chronological order of their nationhood.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process. It is therefore practically impossible to come up with a single date for a nation's "birth". However, most nations have accepted some dates in their respective histories as their symbolic starting points. This is usually done more for nationalistic propaganda than for scientific reasons. For many ancient and medieval nations these starting points are usually the dates when a nation was mentioned in a written document for the first time or simply a date from their national mythology. In Europe this often coincides with the ruler's conversion to Christianity. For post-colonial nations, starting with the United States, the beginning of nationhood is usually considered to be the date when independence was declared, granted or recognised.

Before 1200

660 BC - Japan - traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu
221 BC - China - unification under the Qin Dynasty
at least 2,000 years - Ethiopia - oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world
3 September, 301 - San Marino
486 - France - unified by Clovis
843 - Scotland - unified by Kenneth mac Alpin
10th century - Denmark - organized as a unified state
10th century - England
1001 - Hungary - unification by King Stephen I
1143 - Portugal
1156 - Austria - from Bavaria

1200-1799

1238 - Thailand - traditional founding date; never colonized
1278 - Andorra - formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel
1 August, 1291 - Switzerland - founding of the Swiss Confederation
1419 - Monaco - beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi
1492 - Spain - unification of several kingdoms
6 June, 1523 - Sweden - Gustav Vasa elected king
1579 - Netherlands - from Spain
1650 - Oman - expulsion of the Portuguese
23 January, 1719 - Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
1768 - Nepal - unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah
4 July, 1776 - United States - from Great Britain

1800-1899

1 January, 1804 - Haiti - from France
12 July, 1806 - Liechtenstein - from the Holy Roman Empire
20 July, 1810 - Colombia - from Spain
16 September, 1810 - Mexico - from Spain
18 September, 1810 - Chile - from Spain
14 May, 1811 - Paraguay - from Spain
5 July, 1811 - Venezuela - from Spain
9 July, 1816 - Argentina - from Spain
28 July, 1821 - Peru - from Spain
15 September, 1821 - Costa Rica - from Spain
15 September, 1821 - El Salvador - from Spain
15 September, 1821 - Guatemala - from Spain
15 September, 1821 - Honduras - from Spain
15 September, 1821 - Nicaragua - from Spain
28 November, 1821 - Panama - from Spain
24 May, 1822 - Ecuador - from Spain
7 September, 1822 - Brazil - from Portugal
6 August, 1825 - Bolivia - from Spain
25 August, 1825 - Uruguay - from Brazil
1829 - Greece - from the Ottoman Empire
4 October, 1830 - Belgium - independence from the Netherlands
1839 - Luxembourg - from the Netherlands
27 February, 1844 - Dominican Republic - from Haiti
26 July, 1847 - Liberia
1849 - Denmark - became a constitutional monarchy
17 March, 1861 - Italy - Kingdom of Italy unfied under King Victor Emmanuel II
1 July, 1867 - Canada - from UK
18 January, 1871 - German Empire - German Empire unification
9 May, 1877 - Romania - from Turkey
3 March, 1878 - Bulgaria - from Ottoman Empire
26 March, 1881 - Kingdom of Romania
12 June, 1898 - Philippines - from Spain
10 December, 1898 - Cuba - from Spain

1900-1939

1 January, 1901 - Australia - federation of UK colonies
20 May, 1902 - Cuba - from U.S. administration
3 November, 1903 - Panama - from Colombia
June 7, 1905 - Norway - union with Sweden dissolved
September 26, 1907 - New Zealand - from UK
May 31, 1910 - South Africa - from UK
October 5, 1910 - Portugal - independent republic
January 1 (February 12, O.S), 1912 - Republic of China - from Qing Dynasty
November 28, 1912 - Albania - from Ottoman Empire
December 6, 1917 - Finland - from Russia
November 1, 1918 - North Yemen - from the Ottoman Empire
November 11, 1918 - Poland - independent republic
December 1, 1918 - Iceland - became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown
August 19, 1919 - Afghanistan - from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs
July 11, 1921 - Mongolia - from China
December 6, 1921 - Ireland - from UK by treaty
1922 - Soviet Union - fall of the Russian Empire
February 28, 1922 - Egypt - from UK
October 29, 1923 - Turkey - successor state to the Ottoman Empire
February 11, 1929 - Vatican City - from Italy
September 23, 1932 - Saudi Arabia - Unification of the Kingdom
October 3, 1932 - Iraq - from League of Nations mandate under British administration

1940-1949

November 22, 1943 - Lebanon - from League of Nations mandate under French administration
June 17, 1944 - Iceland - from Denmark
August 15, 1945 - North Korea - from Japan
August 15, 1945 - South Korea - from Japan
August 17, 1945 - Indonesia - from the Netherlands
September 2, 1945 - Vietnam - from France
April 17, 1946 - Syria - from League of Nations mandate under French administration
May 25, 1946 - Jordan - from League of Nations mandate under British administration
August 14, 1947 - Pakistan - from UK
August 15, 1947 - India - from UK
December 30, 1947 - Romania - proclaimed as a republic
January 4, 1948 - Burma - from UK
February 4, 1948 - Sri Lanka - from UK
May 14, 1948 - Israel - from League of Nations mandate under British administration
May 23, 1949 - Federal Republic of Germany - from German Empire
July 19, 1949 - Laos - from France
August 8, 1949 - Bhutan - from India
October 1, 1949 - People's Republic of China - from Republic of China
October 7, 1949 - German Democratic Republic - from German Empire

1950-1959

December 24, 1951 - Libya - from Italy
November 9, 1953 - Cambodia - from France
January 1, 1956 - Sudan - from Egypt and UK
March 2, 1956 - Morocco - from France
March 20, 1956 - Tunisia - from France
March 6, 1957 - Ghana - from UK
August 31, 1957 - Malaysia - from UK
October 2, 1958 - Guinea - from France

1960-1969

January 1, 1960 - Cameroon - from French-administered UN trusteeship
April 4, 1960 - Senegal - from France
April 27, 1960 - Togo - from French-administered UN trusteeship
June 26, 1960 - Madagascar - from France
June 26, 1960 - Somalia - from the UK
June 30, 1960 - Democratic Republic of the Congo - from Belgium
July 1, 1960 - Somalia - from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship
August 1, 1960 - Benin - from France
August 3, 1960 - Niger - from France
August 5, 1960 - Burkina Faso - from France
August 7, 1960 - Cote d'Ivoire - from France
August 11, 1960 - Chad - from France
August 13, 1960 - Central African Republic - from France
August 15, 1960 - Republic of the Congo - from France
August 16, 1960 - Cyprus - from UK
August 17, 1960 - Gabon - from France
September 22, 1960 - Mali - from France
October 1, 1960 - Nigeria - from UK
November 28, 1960 - Mauritania - from France
1961 - Republic of South Africa - following an October 1960 referendum
April 27, 1961 - Sierra Leone - from UK
June 19, 1961 - Kuwait - from UK
January 1, 1962 - Samoa - from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship
July 1, 1962 - Burundi - from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration
July 1, 1962 - Rwanda - from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship
July 5, 1962 - Algeria - from France
August 6, 1962 - Jamaica - from UK
August 31, 1962 - Trinidad and Tobago - from UK
October 9, 1962 - Uganda - from UK
December 12, 1963 - Kenya - from UK
April 26, 1964 - Tanzania - from UK-administered UN trusteeship
July 6, 1964 - Malawi - from UK
September 21, 1964 - Malta - from UK
October 24, 1964 - Zambia - from UK
February 18, 1965 - The Gambia - from UK
July 26, 1965 - Maldives - from UK
August 9, 1965 - Singapore - from Malaysian Federation
May 26, 1966 - Guyana - from UK
September 30, 1966 - Botswana - from UK
October 4, 1966 - Lesotho - from UK
November 30, 1966 - Barbados - from UK
November 30, 1967 - South Yemen - from the UK
January 31, 1968 - Nauru - from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship
March 12, 1968 - Mauritius - from UK
September 6, 1968 - Swaziland - from UK
October 12, 1968 - Equatorial Guinea - from Spain

1970-1979

June 4, 1970 - Tonga - from UK protectorate
October 10, 1970 - Fiji - from UK
March 26, 1971 - Bangladesh - independence from West Pakistan
August 15, 1971 - Bahrain - from UK
September 3, 1971 - Qatar - from UK
December 2, 1971 - United Arab Emirates - from UK
December 16, 1971 - Bangladesh - creation of the state of Bangladesh
July 10, 1973 - The Bahamas - from UK
September 24, 1973 - Guinea-Bissau - from Portugal
February 7, 1974 - Grenada - from UK
October 19, 1974 - Niue - became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
June 25, 1975 - Mozambique - from Portugal
July 5, 1975 - Cape Verde - from Portugal
July 6, 1975 - Comoros - from France
July 12, 1975 - Sao Tome and Principe - from Portugal
September 16, 1975 - Papua New Guinea - from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship
November 11, 1975 - Angola - from Portugal
November 25, 1975 - Suriname - from Netherlands
November 28, 1975 - East Timor - from Portugal
June 29, 1976 - Seychelles - from UK
June 27, 1977 - Djibouti - from France
July 7, 1978 - Solomon Islands - from UK
October 1, 1978 - Tuvalu - from UK
November 3, 1978 - Dominica - from UK
February 22, 1979 - Saint Lucia - from UK
April 1, 1979 - Iran - Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed
July 12, 1979 - Kiribati - from UK
October 27, 1979 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - from UK

1980-1989

April 18, 1980 - Zimbabwe - from UK
July 30, 1980 - Vanuatu - from France and UK
September 21, 1981 - Belize - from UK
November 1, 1981 - Antigua and Barbuda - from UK
September 19, 1983 - Saint Kitts and Nevis - from UK
January 1, 1984 - Brunei - from UK
October 21, 1986 - Marshall Islands - from the US-administered UN trusteeship
November 3, 1986 - Federated States of Micronesia - from the US-administered UN Trusteeship

1990-1999

March 11, 1990 - Lithuania - from Soviet Union
March 21, 1990 - Namibia - from South African mandate
May 22, 1990 - Yemen - merger North Yemen and South Yemen
October 3, 1990 - Germany - unification of West Germany and East Germany
April 9, 1991 - Georgia - from Soviet Union
June 25, 1991 - Croatia - from Yugoslavia
June 25, 1991 - Slovenia - from Yugoslavia
August 20, 1991 - Estonia - from Soviet Union
August 21, 1991 - Latvia - from Soviet Union
August 24, 1991 - Russia - from Soviet Union
August 24, 1991 - Ukraine - from the Soviet Union
August 25, 1991 - Belarus - from Soviet Union
August 27, 1991 - Moldova - from Soviet Union
August 30, 1991 - Azerbaijan - from Soviet Union
August 31, 1991 - Kyrgyzstan - from Soviet Union
September 1, 1991 - Uzbekistan - from Soviet Union
September 8, 1991 - Republic of Macedonia - from Yugoslavia
September 9, 1991 - 'Tajikistan\' - from Soviet Union
September 21, 1991 - Armenia - from Soviet Union
October 27, 1991 - Turkmenistan - from the Soviet Union
December 16, 1991 - Kazakhstan - from the Soviet Union
March 1, 1992 - Bosnia and Herzegovina - from Yugoslavia
April 27, 1992 - Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
January 1, 1993 - Czech Republic - Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
January 1, 1993 - Slovakia - Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia
May 24, 1993 - Eritrea - from Ethiopia
October 1, 1994 - Palau - from the US-administered UN Trusteeship

Since 2000

May 20, 2002 - East Timor - from Indonesia

See also