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List of alternative, speculative and disputed theories
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List of alternative, speculative and disputed theories

This list of alternative, speculative and disputed theories includes examples of fields of endeavor that many consider to varying extents to be fringe or pseudoscientific. Many of these practices are often quite popular, in part because they sometimes work. Opinion on the validity of these practices is extremely diverse. Many may qualify as protosciences.

In addition to a postulated theory, inclusion in the list is possible because that theory is:

  1. Asserting claims without supporting experimental evidence;
  2. Asserting claims which contradict experimentally established results;
  3. Failing to provide an experimental possibility of reproducible results; or
  4. Violating Occam's Razor (the principle of choosing the simplest explanation when multiple viable explanations are possible).
  5. Adhered to by a limited group.

Many of these theories are considered pathological science: a psychological process in which believers in a theory, who may have originally conformed to the scientific method, unconsciously veer from that method and begin a pathological process of wishful data interpretation.

The term ironic science was used by John Horgan in his book The End of Science to describe a "speculative, non-empirical mode" that mainstream science sometimes enters.

Note that historically, some currently respected theories would have appeared on this list, e.g. plate tectonics or the idea that stones could fall from the sky.

Table of contents
1 Theories
2 See also
3 External links

Theories

Biology

See also #Medicine below.

Divination

Geology

Medicine

Miscellaneous

Physics

Psychology

Sociology

Xenology

See also

External links