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Ldu decomposition
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Ldu decomposition

From linear algebra: LDU decomposition states that for every square matrix A, there exists: such that PA = LDU.

The permutation matrix can possibly be equal to the unit matrix I. If it is, than LDU is a unique decomposition, that is, for any other decomposition L!=L*, D!=D*, and U!=U*. We can show this by showing a contradiction if it's not true:

If we solve the equation to:

If you multiply a lower-triangular matrix by another, you get a lower triangular matrix. Therefore the inverse of a lower-triangular matrix must also be a lower-triangular matrix. If you multiply a lower-triangular matrix by a diagonal matrix, you still have a lower-triangular matrix. Therefore, the left side of the above equation is a lower-triangular matrix. The same arguments show that the right side must be an upper-triangular matrix. Therefore, the only way the above equation could hold (besides with null matrices) is if the terms (L with the inverse of L*, and U with the inverse of U*) cancel, which shows that they are equal because a term would only cancel if it was its own inverse.