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Kalmykia (Респу́блика Калмы́кия) is a small republic of Russian Federation, located near the Caspian Sea.

Калмыцкая Республика Российской Федерации
Kalmytskaya Respublika Rossiyskoy Federatsii
(In detail) (In detail)
National motto: None
Official language Kalmykian, Russian
Capital Elista
PresidentKirsan Ilyumzhinov
Prime Minister?
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 44th
76,100 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
(not ranked)
Currency Russian Ruble
Time zone UTC +3
Calling Code7 (Russia)

Table of contents
1 History
2 Administrative Division
3 Kalmyks Outside Kalmykia
4 External links


One thing that sets Kalmykia apart from its neighbors is that it is the only Buddhist state in Europe. The Kalmyk people, of nomadic Mongols, originated in Central Asia as borderland nomads in Chinese Turkestan, the homeland they call Jungaria. Their ancestors controlled a vast area known as Grand Tartary or the Kalmyk Empire, stretching from the Great Wall of China to the River Don, and from the Himalayas to Siberia.

Following a particularly bloody offensive by the Chinese emperor, who suspected that they might ally themselves with the Russians against him, they reached as far as the desert steppes of southeast Europe in the 17th century, and settled around their capital in Astrakhan on the Volga delta. A century later, growing disillusioned with increasing Russian interference, the Kalmyks decided to return to Jungaria in Xinjiang province in China - a small number survived the hazardous journey home and are now called Oirats, while some others did not manage to cross the Volga to join the return to Asia.

The Kalmyk people then aligned themselves with Russian rule, first under the tsars, and later under the communists. They gradually created fixed settlements with houses and temples, instead of their transportable round felt yurts, this process lasting until well after the Russian Revolution. Forced collectivisation was a social, economic and cultural disaster, unsuited to the Kalmyk temperament and the dry treeless landscape. During the Second World War Stalin, suspicious of their loyalty due to their dissatisfaction with their conditions, deported the whole Kalmyk nation without notice to Siberia in cattle trucks in midwinter. Half of their number perished during the journey and in the following years of exile, an ethnic cleansing unknown to the outside world to this day.

Due to their widespread dispersal in Siberia their language and culture suffered possibly irreversible decline. Khrushchev finally allowed their return in 1957, when they found their homes, jobs and land occupied by imported Russians and Ukrainians, who remained. In the following years bad planning of agriculture and irrigation projects resulted in widespead desertification, and economically unviable industrial plants were constructed. With the collapse of the Soviet regime the economy also disintegrated, causing widespread social hardship and increasing depopulation of rural areas lacking in resources and facilities.

Kalmykia is currently ruled by Kirsan Ilyumzhinov.

Administrative Division


Kalmykia Republic consists of the following districts (Russian: районы):

Kalmyks Outside Kalmykia

There is also a small Kalmyk minority living within eastern Kyrgyzstan, especially in villages in the Karakol region. These Kalmyks are those who remained when the bulk of the nation moved westwards in the early 16th century. The Kalmyk language and their traditions are dying out rapidly due to small numbers, and majority pressures. Most are now Muslims, not Buddhists, and there is no public display of Kalmyk culture. There is also a small Kalmyk community in Pennsylvania in the USA. They are desended from those Kalmyks who fought on the German side in World War 2.

External links

Federal Subjects of Russia
Republics of Russia
Adygeya | Altai | Bashkortostan | Buryatia | Chechnya | Chuvashia | Dagestan | Ingushetia | Kabardino-Balkaria | Karelia | Khakassia | Komi | Kalmykia | Karachay-Cherkessia | Mariy El | Mordovia | North Ossetia-Alania | Sakha | Tatarstan | Tuva | Udmurtia
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Federal cities of Russia
Moscow | St. Petersburg
Autonomous Oblasts of Russia
Autonomous Districts of Russia
Aga Buryatia | Chukotka | Evenkia | Khantia-Mansia | Koryakia | Nenetsia | Permyakia | Taymyria | Ust-Orda Buryatia | Yamalia

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