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Kaifeng (开封/開封, pinyin: kāi fēng) is a city in the Henan province of the People's Republic of China, located along the Huang He, 70 km from Zhengzhou, the provincial capital. Population: 4.3 million. The GDP per capita was 7906 (about US$960) in 2003, ranked 352nd among 659 Chinese cities.


Kaifeng was one of the ancient capitals of China.

In 364 BC, the state of Wei during the Warring States Period founded a city called Daliang (大梁) as its capital in this area. But it was abandoned after the destruction of Wei.

In AD 781 (Tang Dynasty), a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (汴), which was expanded in 956 (Song Dynasty).

During the Song Dynasty, Kaifang was the capital with a population of over a million, living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem of the city.

In 1049, Youguosi Pagoda (佑國寺塔), or Iron Pagoda (鐵塔) as we call it today, was constructed, which measures 54.7 m in height. It has survived the destruction of wars and floodings and become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song Dynasty pagoda, Bo Ta (繁塔), from 974, has been partially destroyed.

In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again.

Under the celebrated Qing emperor Kangxi (1662), Kaifeng was rebuilt. However, another flooding occurred in 1841, followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng as we know it.

Kaifeng is also known for having one of the last Jewish communities in China.

See also: Capital of China

Colleges and Universities


Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.