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Intel is a US based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. Intel also makes networking cards, motherboard chipsets, components, and other devices. Intel has advanced research projects in all aspects of semiconductor manufacturing, including MEMS.

It was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce. Its employee number 4 was Andrew Grove, who ran the company more or less from his arrival in the 1960s through his retirement in the 1990s, building it into one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world.

Moore and Noyce wanted to name their new company 'Moore Noyce'. But the name does not sound good in electronics- noise being associated with bad interference. So they decided to call their company the INTegrated ELectronics or intel for short. However, Intel is already trademarked by a hotel chain so they had to buy the rights for that name at the beginning.

The company started as a memory manufacturer before making the switch to processors. Andrew Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive.

During the 1990s, Intel's Intel Architecture Labs (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations of the Personal Computer, including the PCI Bus, the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the now-dominant architecture for multi-processor servers. IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video, but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. The competition between Intel and Microsoft was revealed in testimony at the Microsoft anti-trust trial.

Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit PC microprocessors), combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers) made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything.

Currently, the only major competitor to Intel on the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices, with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge. Some smaller competitors such as Transmeta produce low-power processors for portable equipment.

Table of contents
1 Financial information
2 See also
3 External links

Financial information

Intel is publicly traded at NASDAQ. Its market capitalisation is about US$147B and shares are traded at US$23 (July 2004).

Intel corporation is a component of the GSTI Software Index

See also

External links

Intel is also a short name for intelligence, in reference to Military intelligence, and espionage.