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Hamster
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Hamster

Hamsters

Syrian Hamster
Scientific classification
Domain:Eukaryota
Kingdom:Animalia
Subkingdom:Metazoa
Phylum:Chordata
Subphylum:Vertebrata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Rodentia
Suborder:Sciurognathi
Superfamily:Myomorpha
Family:Cricetidae
Subfamily:Cricetinae
Genera
Cricetus
Mesocricetus
Phodopus
Calomyscus

Cricetulus
Mystromys
A hamster is a rodent belonging to subfamily Cricetinae. The subfamily contains about 18 species, classified in six or seven genera. Most have expandable cheek pouches, which reach from their cheeks to their shoulders.

Table of contents
1 Species of hamsters
2 Hamsters as pets
3 Classification of hamsters
4 Animals that are not really hamsters
5 External links

Species of hamsters

The best known species is the Syrian Hamster, also known as the Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, which is commonly kept as a pet. Two other varieties of hamster are also growing in popularity as pets, the Dwarf Campbell's Russian and the Winter White Russian Hamsters (both subspecies of Phodopus sungorus). Two further species (the Chinese Hamster Cricetulus curtatus and the Roborovski Hamster Phodopus roborovskii) can be found on occasion. Also extremely popular since its discovery around 1985 or 1986 is a mutation of the Syrian Hamster known as the "Black Bear" hamster; more docile than most hamsters, it is black with a white patch of fur at the neck.

Hamsters as pets

Hamsters are nocturnal by nature, making them less than ideal as pets for people who are normally awake during the day. However, many people prefer them to rats, given rats' unsavory reputation (undeserved as pets). Unlike rats, they are not particularly good at learning tricks but can be entertaining to watch. They are also much smaller than guinea pigs, although equally as furry and appealing, so are more appropriate for homes with limited space.

Housing

Hamsters can be kept both in cages and in terrariums, both of which are available in pet stores. Cages are easier to carry, their bars can be used for climbing, and they usually include a convenient front door. On the other hand, glass boxes keep hamsters from throwing litter out of their cages, provide a better view into the hamster's home, and create a quieter and more sheltered interior. In general, terrariums are more appropriate for dwarf hamsters, which are more sensitive to a disquieting environment and which would otherwise need very narrow-grid bars to keep them from slipping through. Middle-sized hamsters, such as the Golden Hamster, especially enjoy climbing the cage walls (the cage should have horizontal and vertical bars) and are more open to the outside world, which is why cages might be the better choice for this kind of hamsters.

In spite of the hamster's small size, appropriate housings should always have a floor space of at least 40 cm by 60 cm (16 by 24 inches) and be at least 40 cm (24 inches) in height. Glass boxes must not be higher than their width to allow for a sufficient air circulation. Although smaller in size, dwarf hamsters should have bigger housings than their larger relatives, at least 80 cm by 40 cm (2 feet by 4 feet). The reason for this is that the dwarfs are very active, running and digging a lot, but they often cannot be taken outside their houses for long, because they are not comfortable there and, due to their smaller size, are more endangered when leaving their domicile. Usually hamsters with a bigger and more interesting home will live longer and provide more visual entertainment.

In addition to buying the common housings sold in stores, you can also build customized dwellings. In this case, use only materials that are not dangerous to the animals. Plywood and wood from conifers is not suitable, because hamsters gnaw at their houses and both glue and resin are poisonous for them. Using standard water-soluble white wood glue to join pieces of solid wood, such as birch or beech wood, creates a safe environment for the hamster, although you must check frequently to ensure that the hamster is not gnawing through the wood. You can also equip a purchased cage with several intermediate levels, connected using stairs. Using wire grid for these platforms instead of solid wood causes serious injuries and is therefore not recommended.

The narrow and smooth plastic toy housings that can be found in some stores are usually not appropriate as the sole habitat for hamsters. The tight tubes are often densely closed, preventing sufficient air circulation, and the plastic surfaces, while easily cleanable, cannot absorb the hamster's urine like natural materials. The result is a damp and uncomfortable climate that is a perfect habitat for germs and fungi. In addition, synthetic materials are unhealthy when used for gnawing, making plastic tubes, "space stations", and houses an improper and unnatural (though often expensive) permanent home for hamsters. Reserve these habitats for supervised play and activity.

The perfect place for the hamster's home is a well-lit room of constant, moderate temperature (18C to 26C, 64 to 80F), in a place without strong solar irradiation that could cause dangerous heating. Especially when wire cages are used, it is also important to avoid air draft. Though they cannot see very far, hamsters become more relaxed and curious when positioned somewhat above the ground (at least 65cm (2 feet)), from where they can perceive their surroundings.

Cover the inside of the hamster's residence, including all intermediate levels, with a sufficiently thick layer of wooden litter for rodents, available in pet stores. Although alternative materials may work as well, most of these bear additional threats. Cat litter is dangerous, because gnawing and eating the chunks is deadly.

Hamsters are nest builders and a steady supply of fresh strips of tissue or newspaper (with soy-based ink) allows them to build a secure and comfortable spot in a corner of their enclosure or in their hiding house. Hay, from shops or even fresh from the garden, is also a valuable building material for cozy hamster nests, which, as an additional bonus, is also perfectly edible.

Hamsters are fairly neat in their bathroom habits; if their enclosure is regularly cleaned, they choose one small location in which to urinate and defecate, making the cleaning simple.

A nice addition to the standard interior is a sand bath, as described below.

The hamster's home must be cleaned regularly by exchanging the litter where necessary. Hamsters are neat animals and usually pick specific spots for urination, making a selective cleaning possible. Homes should be cleaned at least once a week, although once in two weeks might suffice for small hamsters that have many (usually hidden) places used as toilets. Regular cleaning is crucial for the hamster's health.

Another important component of a hamster's home is a hiding place where the animal can rest during the day. Not all commercially available houses are adequate. The houses should be of sufficient size and be closed on at least two sides. The same building materials are appropriate for these as for the larger cages, although even a small cardboard box will work (and which will have to be regularly replaced). Some houses add features such as a removable roof that helps to take away collected food (especially perishable items).

Hamsters are solitary animals and prefer to be alone most of the time. While sometimes two or more animals can live peacefully within one home, there can be bloody fights. In their natural habitat, there is substantially more empty space so that each hamster can have its own large territory. If more than one hamster is to live in a cage, then the cage must be larger (at least 40cm x 40cm per hamster) and there must be separate hiding houses for each animal. In any case, even after a long period of peaceful coexistence or even mating, there can be violent biting. In this situation, the hamsters should be separated immediately. Note also that, if a male and female hamster live together without fighting, then they will usually reproduce rapidly, thereby causing more space problems.

Gnawing

Despite their cuddly appearance, hamsters have long, thin, sharp teeth than can pierce a finger that is mistaken for a carrot or for a predator. When they are accustomed to being handled and are not startled, however, they are not inclined to bite and can be placed in the custody of responsible school-age children. Like many rodents, their teeth grow continuously and they must have appropriate things to chew on to relieve their instinctive gnawing and to help keep the teeth at a healthy length. They will gnaw on whatever is available, so they must be kept in enclosures that they cannot chew through. When the hamster is kept in or near a bedroom, their nocturnal nature combined with their gnawing habit can become distracting.

Exercise and Entertainment

Like all pets, hamsters need exercise and entertainment to maintain their physical and mental health. An exercise wheel allows hamsters to run full speed to their hearts' content, but is not as mentally stimulating as more elaborate enclosures including additional toys such as plastic or wooden tubes that somewhat mimic the burrows that they might have in the wild and allow their owners to enjoy their activities.

Clear plastic hamster balls or cars are available, into which the hamster is placed and then, by its own action, explores an entire house or yard. Use these toys only under supervision and use common sense. Unsupervised hamsters in these toys can become trapped against furniture and panic or they can roll down stairs, injuring themselves. Do not leave them in these toys for extended periods, especially on warm days, and make sure to remove them frequently and allow them access to water or fresh fruits or vegetables. Toys should always invite the hamster to explore and use them at its own will, without forcing or violence.

If they are handled frequently, hamsters enjoy being out of their enclosures and having the opportunity to explore. However, they must be kept away from holes in the wall or in large pieces of furniture, because they will seek out the dark and burrow-like confines of those areas and can be difficult or impossible to convince to come out again.

Food

Pet stores can provide basic food for hamsters that provides their nutritional needs, but they also enjoy fresh vegetables and fruits, bird seed, and even living insects, which make up an important part of their natural diet. However, not any nutrition is suitable for hamsters and some food, such as sweets made for humans or poisonous plants like the leaves of the tomato, may be most dangerous for the hamster's health. Like with most other animals (and humans), it is not true that hamsters can decide which food is good for them and they will usually eat anything that is offered.

Hamsters should also always have fresh water available. Appropriate drinking devices can be found in stores. Being small animals that are adapted to the life in arid environments, hamsters can also ingest all necessary liquid via sufficient amounts of watery vegetables, such as cucumber, without any negative effects. However, providing water is usually more convenient and can be an easy way to add medication or vitamins to the hamsters diet. Both water and vegetables must be fresh and have to be exchanged frequently, usually once a day. Water must not be given in open jars, since it is likely to be polluted and because wetness is generally very unhealthy for hamsters (that clean themselves very carefully without the need of additional water).

In detail, the solid food components can be divided into three categories: dry, fresh, and animal food. Dry food usually makes up the main part in this listing. Besides the standard rodent food sold in pet stores, most other kinds of seeds, kernels, and nuts can be given. Care should be taken to limit the amount of fat contained within the diet. Especially sunflower seeds, nuts, almonds, and sesame are most nutritive and are to be considered as a treat rather than as basic food. All kinds of grain, rice, noodles (dry), dry peas and lentils on the other hand can be provided less restrictively: about 120g for a medium hamster and, depending on size, about half the amount for a dwarf hamster is sufficient. Bread and similar bakery products contain many ingredients (e.g. yeast) that can trouble the hamster's digestion system. They should be given in small amounts for gnawing or be replaced by special wafers as found in pet stores. All dry food should be appropriate in size. Especially small hamsters often cannot cope well with large seeds, even if they are sold under the label "hamster food". Bird food like millet is a noteworthy alternative for small hamsters.

Hay, although belonging to the dry food as well, should be provided in large amounts at any time. It does not contain notable amounts of fat, still is liked by most hamsters, supports the hamster's digestion system, serves as a hiding place, and is often used for nest building. In addition it is cheap and can even be produced in the own garden easily.

Fresh food is also an important part of the hamster's diet. As mentioned above, cucumber is a good supplier of water. Fresh grass, carrot, all kinds of lettuce, leaves and even branches of (non-poisonous) plants are also no problem in general. However, no conifer wood must be fed since resin is poisonous for hamsters. In smaller amounts, grown hamsters also appreciate apple, pear, sweet paprika, tomato (only red parts), banana, mango, strawberry, and even small pieces of orange. Too much sweet fruits on the other hand are not healthy. All kinds of cabbage should rather be avoided, since they may cause flatulence, which is quite dangerous for the hamster's sensitive digestion system.

Very young hamsters (6-8 Weeks) should get only carrot and small grains. Even water can damage their digestion system and be a deadly danger. Ill hamsters are also preferably provided with a more conservative diet. If accepted, herbs can also help to strengthen the hamster's health, though they cannot replace a veterinarian in case of a disease. Daisy (try the flowers!) and dandelions are likewise appreciated. Yet, plants should never be taken from places near streets because hamsters are more sensitive to chemical pollutions, due to their small body weight.

Finally animal food is a major component of some hamsters natural food. As pets, a large part of this can be replaced by dry food. Still hamsters need some animal proteins for their health. While some people like to provide living insects from pet stores to their hamsters, others will prefer to give them dry dog biscuits. Some hamsters are known to accept yogurt (natural, without sweet ingredients) or soft cheese (low fat, not too salty), and in any case egg noodles are usually taken gratefully. If (dry or soft) dog or cat food is given, then the fat content has to be checked carefully. Furthermore, it must not contain molasses, which would harm the hamster.

In addition, a special salt stone (available in pet stores) belongs into every hamster cage. Although this huge amount of mineral salts is hardly used up by generations of hamsters, it is necessary for their life. Vitamin additives for rodents are not required and usually fresh vegetables are to be preferred. Yet, if the hamster is diseased or ill-nourished, vitamins or medicaments may be needed.

There is also some food that a hamster should never get. This includes all kinds of human sweets, such as chocolate or candy, which are unhealthy and even dangerous. Furthermore, poisonous plants (also check indoor plants if the hamster is taken outside its housing) constitute a considerable danger. Other than this, mainly the various unhealthy and chemically treated products usually consumed by humans can cause problems.

Reproduction and longevity

Hamsters typically live no more than two to four years in captivity, less than that in the wild. Because of their short life expectancy, hamsters mature quickly and can begin reproducing at a young age (3 months?). Left to their own devices, hamsters will produce several litters a year with several babies in each litter. Male and female hamsters are therefore usually kept in separate enclosures to prevent the addition of unwanted offspring.

When seen from above, a sexually mature female hamster has a trim tail line; a male's tail line bulges on both sides.

Classification of hamsters

Taxonomists currently disagree about the most appropriate placement of the subfamily Cricetinae. Some place it in a family Cricetidae that also includes voles, lemmings and some other genera; others group all these into the larger family Muridae.

The following list of species may not be complete.

Genus Mesocricetus

Genus Phodopus

Genus Calomyscus

Genus Cricetus

Genus Cricetulus

Genus Mystromys

Animals that are not really hamsters

Note that there are some rodents sometimes called "hamsters" that are not currently classified in the hamster subfamily Cricetinae. These include

External links


Hamster is a computer jargon term referring to a cordless computer mouse that uses radio or infrared technology. The name derives from the fact that hamsters are similar to mice but lack tails.

Hamster is also programming jargon for a small self contained piece of code, like a hamster running in its wheel.